New sulfur denitrator working great!

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Belgian Anthias

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Hi,
My SD has separated media in one reactor. I would say 3/4 is sulfur and 1/2 calcium carb.

NO3
I googled it up.
The Korallin reactor probably was originally made to be a calcium reactor. The pump is on the highest point which is not very suitable for a BADES reactor due to the possible accumulation of gasses in the pump. It is a very expensive reactor for this purpose as any recipient is suitable for BADES as a BADES reactor is not pressurized, a simple plastic bottle or container with a lid can be used, a small circulation pump on the lowest point to create a MBR (moving bed reactor).
As was explained, using BADES for manging the nitrogen content of a high nutrient system, a fish tank, if using a reactor this reactor must be big enough, at least 1% of the system volume sulfur + 1% calcium carbonate, depending on the daily nitrogen overproduction to be removed daily. Such a reactor will be able to handle a daily flow of +- 2x the total system volume daily targeting 0 nitrate in the effluent. As targetting 0 nitrate is not recommended using BADES, the daily flow may become a lot higher, allowing normal nitrification. ref: https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/doku.php?id=en:badess:bades_bio-film_reactor If more has to be removed daily ( an aquarium grows) to keep the level steady, the reactor must be bigger. I always advise to start with a too big BADES reactor and fill it as needed. Or better, for big systems, two or more BADES reactors in parallel operation.
The Korallin reactor kept anoxic is only suitable for lowering a high nitrate level until the critical point is reached., which is the only purpose of an anoxic kept sulfur denitrator. It is too small for to be managed as a BADES reactor.
If the media is mixed, the results will be a lot better using a BADES reactor, but for an anoxic kept sulfur denitrator it makes not a big difference. Calcium carbonate dissolves a lot faster as sulfur is consumed and separated media makes servicing easier.

Making use of BADES is not difficult, just add elemental sulfur to the filterbed.
 

robbyg

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Putting BADES aside for a moment and just discussing a regular reactor. I have mine up and running just fine but now my Nitrate is at 2.5 and I am worried about how to actually stop this thing from lowering it further. What is the procedure because the last time i just took it off line and emptied it and then had to restart it again when the Nitrate went up. There must be a way to throttle these reactors down that still preserves some of the bacteria?

Also can these reactors really dump ammonia into the water? I thought about lowering the drip rate but in the first few hours of doing that I could smell the sulfur and the fish looked stressed like something was not right. To my utter horror I did not have an Ammonia test kit! I think I threw the last one out about six months ago because the reagents had expired and I had never really had a need to use it in years.
 

robbyg

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My assumption would be to dose amino acids to offset low nitrates. This is my plan in the event I get too low.
I have never added amino acids. Is this proven to be a perfect substitute? Also any thoughts on how these reactors behave at near zero nitrate? I am hearing about possible Ammonia releases.
 
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Belgian Anthias

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Putting BADES aside for a moment and just discussing a regular reactor. I have mine up and running just fine but now my Nitrate is at 2.5 and I am worried about how to actually stop this thing from lowering it further. What is the procedure because the last time i just took it off line and emptied it and then had to restart it again when the Nitrate went up. There must be a way to throttle these reactors down that still preserves some of the bacteria?

Also can these reactors really dump ammonia into the water? I thought about lowering the drip rate but in the first few hours of doing that I could smell the sulfur and the fish looked stressed like something was not right. To my utter horror I did not have an Ammonia test kit! I think I threw the last one out about six months ago because the reagents had expired and I had never really had a need to use it in years.
Remove the reactor from the system!
if you smell rotten eggs you smell H2S, this means the reactor water is saturated with HS. This has nothing to do with the elemental sulphur in the reactor but with the anaerobic remineralization taking place reducing sulfate, this because not enough nitrate was supplied. This means also a lot of biowastes are available in the reactor. After the start-up procedure the flow should be increased!
As a " sulfur denitrator" is kept anoxic and the effluent has 0 nitrate, how one will know when all nitrate was used up? The BADES process needs nitrate!!

Using BADES, the flow must be as high as possible for maintaining just enough denitrification capacity to remove the daily nitrate overproduction, a bit more for lowering the level. This way the nitrate level and nitrogen content can easily be managed.

Enough Nitrate is essential for maintaining the BADES process and for removing produced HS in anoxic conditions, HS produced by anaerobic remineralization if all nitrate is used up. Anaerobic remineralization using sulfate as an oxygen source produces ammonia, DNRA taking place besides heterotrophic denitrification produces ammonia. In an anoxic reactor, no nitrification takes place, no nitrate is produced.
Conclusion: Ammonia will be dumped if not enough nitrate is supplied but also a bit if enough nitrate is present due to DNRA.

In a "BADES reactor" the risk for problems caused by sulfate reduction is reduced because the flow may follow the nitrate level. More oxygen means more nitrification capacity. As 0 nitrate in the effluent is not a target using BADES, nitrate starvation can be avoided.
Sulfate reduction must not be avoided as normally produced HS is used for denitrification, if nitrate is available.
 

Belgian Anthias

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Putting BADES aside for a moment and just discussing a regular reactor.
BADES is a process, which also takes place in a "sulphur denitrator". A "sulphur denitrator " is not what I would consider being the regular reactor. The regular reactor, as introduced by Longouet in the nineties, after 7 years of proper research, the MAAO system, was NOT kept anoxic after startup! A Moving Bed Reactor (MBR) has replaced the tube reactor used in the nineties, and the MBR has become the regular reactor for BADES applications needing a reactor.
The difference between a BADESS(ystem) and a "sulfur denitrator" is the way of application. BADES users, using a BADESS, are managing the flow in harmony with the quantity nitrate to remove daily and the nitrate level present.
 

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BADES is a process, which also takes place in a "sulphur denitrator". A "sulphur denitrator " is not what I would consider being the regular reactor. The regular reactor, as introduced by Longouet in the nineties, after 7 years of proper research, the MAAO system, was NOT kept anoxic after startup! A Moving Bed Reactor (MBR) has replaced the tube reactor used in the nineties, and the MBR has become the regular reactor for BADES applications needing a reactor.
The difference between a BADESS(ystem) and a "sulfur denitrator" is the way of application. BADES users, using a BADESS, are managing the flow in harmony with the quantity nitrate to remove daily and the nitrate level present.
Is there a video or an article of this reactor deign in action? I remember you talking about Bades from back in 2016 on RC but I have never seen anyone else mention it.
 

Belgian Anthias

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BADES is just an acronym for the process involved. It is used in all articles concerning a BADESS in the Makazi Baharini wiki and to point out the difference between normal BADES applications and an anoxic kept "sulfur denitrator" So, we use the prefix BADES for all applications by which the reactor is NOT kept anoxic by limiting the flow.
The original MAAO system is a BADES system, the flow is not limited to keep the reactor anoxic. BADES is used in marine aquaria for over 25 years. I think everything about using BADES is known.
In the Makzi Baharini wiki you may find some reading about BADES and the BADES process.
 

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Hello all,
I tested my display water this morning and my NO3 levels show between 5-10ppm, NO2 levels are zero. I do not have corals just FOWLR. My question is can I or should I add fish into the tank now or should I just be patient and wait for the levels to drop some some. I currently have a large snowflake eel, that's all. Any help is always appreciated!

NO3
 
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robbyg

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Hello all,
I tested my display water this morning and my NO3 levels show between 5-10ppm, NO2 levels are zero. I do not have corals just FOWLR. My question is can I or should I add fish into the tank now or should I just be patient and wait for the levels to drop some some. I currently have a large snowflake eel, that's all. Any help is always appreciated!

NO3
You can add fish but make sure you don't add to many inches worth of fish at one time. Your bacteria has attained a population that can handle your snow flake eel and the food you feed him. If you add more fish that is an increased Bio Load and increased amount of stray food in the tank. It will take a week or two for your bacteria to breed up to levels that can convert the increased Ammonia to Nitrite etc. If you dump to many fish in at once you can have a mini Ammonia spike and wipe out your fish.
 

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Thank you all for the comments. @robbyg I can add 2 fish, medium in size. Wait for a few weeks, test and add more. Am I correct?

NO3
 

robbyg

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Thank you all for the comments. @robbyg I can add 2 fish, medium in size. Wait for a few weeks, test and add more. Am I correct?

NO3
What size tank is it and how much rock work and sand do you have?
BTW whats your drip rate like now?
 

NO3

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What size tank is it and how much rock work and sand do you have?
BTW whats your drip rate like now?
I have a 90 gallon saltwater tank, I have around 80 lbs of live rock (I know I need more) and I do not have sand. I have crushed coral bed that's 1.5 inches thick. My drip rate is at a steady stream. No more drips lol! Thanks @robbyg

NO3
 
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robbyg

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I have a 90 gallon saltwater tank, I have around 80 lbs of live rock (I know I need more) and I do not have sand. I have crushed coral bed that's 1.5 inches thick. My drip rate is at a steady stream. No more drips lol! Thanks @robbyg

NO3
A steady stream of zero out Nitrate? Whats the Tanks Nitrate levels?
You have enough sand and rock that adding those fish would not be a problem.
just go easy on the feeding for the first week or two.
 

NO3

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A steady stream of zero out Nitrate? Whats the Tanks Nitrate levels?
You have enough sand and rock that adding those fish would not be a problem.
just go easy on the feeding for the first week or two.
Yes, the steady stream out of the SD, the nitrate and nitrite levels are both zero. The tanks nitrite level is 5-10ppm.

NO3
 

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Yes, the steady stream out of the SD, the nitrate and nitrite levels are both zero. The tanks nitrite level is 5-10ppm.

NO3
That is Great!
The only problem is that you will soon be like me and start to see very low Nitrate like 2.5ppm and start to wonder how do I turn down this Nitrate sucking machine :p
I have been opening the flow up way past my normal max to see what happens, possibly I can keep some of the bacteria alive while not reducing the overall Nitrate by much. It's only been a week now so I will probably check the output in another 3 days. This has always been my problem with SD reactors. They work too well and seem to have no "OFF" or "Slowdown" mechanism that I have found except to remove them. I guess that's not surprising since they were intended to work on municipal sewage systems, so in that environment there is no chance of running low on Nitrates.
 
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NO3

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For me, having a trace to zero nitrate is good. I do not have corals to worry about. I may have a video of my tank before I lost all my fish, I think my tank had COVID-19 :(

NO3
 
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