Discussion in 'Reef Nutrition' started by Reef Nutrition, Mar 27, 2017.

Tigger-Pods (Tigriopus californicus): addressing the cold water myth

top frustrations is the myth that Tigriopus californicus are a "cold water species". I hear this from store owners and hobbyists ALL the time....
  1. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    Time for some myth busting!


    One of my top frustrations is the myth that Tigriopus californicus are a "cold water species". I hear this from store owners and hobbyists ALL the time. This copepod is eurythermal. For those of you that don’t know the term, it describes an organism able to tolerate a wide range of temperatures. Tigriopus californicus is both euryhaline and eurythermal, withstanding and remaining active in salinities from 4ppt (Vittor 1971) to 102ppt (Egloff 1967) and temperatures from 4C (39.2F) (Vittor 1971) to over 40C (104F) (Ranade 1957). The genus Tigriopus is represented by seven species which are abundant in splash zone pools all over the world (Bradford, 1967).



    This copepod can be quite successful in places where nothing else prospers. Tigriopus californicus, as an inhabitant of supralittoral rockpools, is subject to sudden and violent fluctuations in salinity and temperature; these conditions have eliminated this niche for most marine invertebrates (Ricketts and Calvin, 1973). It has effectively colonized much of the Pacific coast of North America. The marine harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus (Baker), is a successful colonizer of supralittoral splash pools from Torch Bay, Alaska, to Baja California, Mexico (L. Chalker-Scott 1995).



    We (Reed Mariculture) are culturing these guys in a greenhouse in the San Jose, CA area. For those of you that have been there in the summer; it's hot. One of the main reasons we are working with this copepod is because we can culture them all year, even in the hottest months when the greenhouse temps get upwards of 38C (100F). I can assure you that we don't use chillers and don't air condition; that would cost us a fortune! If we had seasonality issues, you wouldn't see Tigger-Pods in stores in June, July, August & September, right? We have been culturing this species for 8 years now without any wild stock supplementation. They are fully adapted and domesticated to our greenhouse environment and all the seasonality issues that are associated with this kind of growing area.



    Now, I can see how people could misunderstand this animal when they see it in a refrigerator in a pet store. The reason you see them held this way is because it makes more sense for a retail store; they can hold them for longer periods without heavy mortalities. The colder temperatures simply slow them down metabolically, keeping them from using up the oxygen and their energy reserves; plain and simple. Colder temperatures can also be advantageous with shipping this animal. They remain inactive at the colder temps while in shipping so that they don’t use up all the oxygen in the bottle. We use their hardiness to our advantage so that when a customer buys a bottle, the animals are alive and well.


    I would like for everyone that reads this to share it and help me put this myth to rest. These animals are tougher than most people think, so let’s give them credit where it’s due!


    Cheers!

    Chad M. Clayton


    1. Bradford, J.M. (1967). Genus Tigriopus (Norman) (Copepoda-harpacticoida) in New Zealand with a description of a new species. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand-Zoology, 10(6), 51.
    2. Egloff DA (1967) Ecological aspects of sex ratio and reproduction in experimental and field populations of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus. Doctoral Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
    3. Ranade (1957). Observations on the resistance of Tigriopus fulvus (Fischer) to changes in temperature and salinity.
    4. Ricketts, E.F., Calvin, J., Hedgepeth, J.W., Phillips, D.W., (1985). Between pacific tides. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
    5. Scott, L. C. (1995). Survival and sex ratios of the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus californicus, following ultraviolet-B (290–320 nm) radiation exposure. Marine Biology, 123(4), 799-804.
    6. Vittor, B. A. (1971). Effects of the Environment on Fitness-Related Life History Characters in Tigriopus californicus, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2017
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  2. saltyfilmfolks

    saltyfilmfolks Lights! Camera! Reef! R2R Supporter Reef Squad Leader R2R Excellence Award Photo of the Month Award Build Thread Contributor

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    COOL!
    Thanks Chad ! So much great info in this.
     
  3. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    Considering everything you know about copepods and other bugs, that's a big compliment! Glad I could provide more information for you to cram into you brain. :D

    -Chad
     
  4. Ponraj A

    Ponraj A Active Member

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    Very nice info :):):)
     
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  5. mdbannister

    mdbannister Ahh...the Reef Life Staff Member Team R2R R2R Supporter R2R Excellence Award Photo of the Month Award Article Contributor Build Thread Contributor Partner Member 2018

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    Very good info!
     
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  6. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    Check this out! Joe Faszl with Seascape Studio cycles tanks with Tigger-Pods. Here is what he says about the copepods in the video below, "This was a 120 gallon system. Started with one near expired bottle of Tigger-Pods and fed Phyto-Feast and Oyster-Feast every night a couple of hours after lights out. Makes for a robust start to a reef. Funny though. Add a fish and they disappear within minutes into the rocks and sand. We have been cycling this way for 3 plus years." He calls this the "bug bomb method".

    Joe also tells us that his systems run in the 78F to 80F range. More proof that Tigger-Pods can tolerate our tropical reef systems, and they do quite well on our Phyto-Feast and Oyster-Feast.

     
  7. wowkingjames

    wowkingjames Well-Known Member

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    Thanks for the info.
     
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  8. Ponraj A

    Ponraj A Active Member

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    I have ordered Tigger pods, PE mysis, TDO C1 and SD aquarist.
     
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  9. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    Hello @Ponraj A,

    Just curious. Are you currently in India? How did you order our products? Thanks for posting!

    -Chad
     
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  10. revhtree

    revhtree Owner Administrator Staff Member Team R2R R2R Supporter R2R Excellence Award Photo of the Month Award Article Contributor Build Thread Contributor Partner Member 2018

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    Awesome info! Thanks for sharing!
     
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  11. Brew12

    Brew12 Electrical Gru R2R Supporter Reef Squad Leader R2R Excellence Award Reef Tank 365 Article Contributor Build Thread Contributor North Alabama Reef Club Partner Member 2018

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    Great info... I never knew that Tigger pods would only breed if kept over 100F! :p

    Kidding... kidding... and thanks for the clarification! I kept seeing this myth come up to the point I was wondering if it was something different in my tank!
     
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  12. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    You are sooooo funny! LOL

    I'm so glad that I can provide you with direct evidence and research that backs up my statements. This myth started about 12 years ago; it's time to put it to bed once and for all!

    Chad
     
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  13. ChronicRage

    ChronicRage Member

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    [​IMG]

    Should I let them reach room temp before adding them tonight? So the temperature difference doesn't shock them as much while adding them?
    Also picked up some phyto feast. When and how often should I feed them?
    I don't have any fish and the only inverts are an emerald crab and pistol shrimp. Have a bunch of corals and a nem, though.

    I have a HOB fuge. Should I add them all to that or a little bit on both?
     
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  14. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    Allow the bottle to warm up to room temperature before dumping them in. Since you have no fish, you can add them when the lights are on. Add some to the refugium and some to the main tank. You can feed the Phyto-Feast daily using the minimum recommended dose. Add the dose to the refugium and the algae will make it's way into the main tank. Always mix the dose of algae in a little tank water before dispersing; the algae is quite dense. As usual, monitor water quality at all times and increase the dose slowly over time. Let me know how everything goes and thanks for trying us out!

    -Chad
     
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  15. gcarroll

    gcarroll Valuable Member R2R Supporter R2R Excellence Award Build Thread Contributor

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    Knowing the industry, the myth was most likely started by a small competitor trying to gain market share. I have always loved tigger pods. I used to go to frag shows with a 5 gallon bucket to take home the tigger pods from Reef Nutrition's show display from back in the day.
     
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  16. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    This is exactly how most myths get started. It's quite sad. Good to hear from you Greg!

    -Chad
     
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  17. Bob E

    Bob E Active Member Partner Member 2018

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    Very good info, Thanks
     
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  18. ChronicRage

    ChronicRage Member

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    Should I still turn my pumps off? The main reason I read for turning them off is to give them a better chance of finding shelter before the fish get a chance at them. Since I have no fish, should I still turn them off?
     
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  19. Reef Nutrition

    Reef Nutrition Well-Known Member R2R Supporter Gold Sponsor

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    You don't have to turn off the pumps. But please do it this time, and watch how they behave in the water column under the lights. They are really fun to watch.

    Chad
     
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  20. ChronicRage

    ChronicRage Member

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    You're the man, Chad. Thanks for getting back to me so quickly and answering my questions.

    I actually bought these guys after reading this post. I didn't before because of that myth! I'm excited to try them out. :)
     
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