Uronema marinum

Humblefish

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Uronema marinum


What You Need To Know:

* These are the red sores most often seen on chromis damsels; however it can afflict any fish.
* Treatment of choice is a 45 minute formalin bath (e.g. Quick Cure), followed by transfer into a new/sterile QT.
* Once in QT, it is very important to do followup treatment to ensure all of the parasites have been eliminated. This can be accomplished by dosing and food soaking metronidazole (e.g. Seachem Metroplex) for 10-14 days.
* There is no fallow period for Uronema. Once a tank has Uronema, it must be assumed that the disease can survive in there almost indefinitely.



Additional Information

Uronema marinum is a ciliate parasite with a direct life cycle: It lives, feeds and reproduces directly on the fish (no encysted stage). However, there always exists the possibility that parasites can drop off into the water column and infect other fish. Having no encysted stage makes this pathogen easier to eliminate, but do not underestimate how fast killing Uronema can be. Especially with chromis damsels.

Two additional caveats to know about Uronema:

1. A fish infected with Uronema should also be fed food soaked with metronidazole because the disease can spread internally. Seachem Focus can be used to bind the medication to the food.

2. Uronema is a “free living” parasite which does not require a fish host. It can subsist off bacteria, dead tissue and (mainly) detritus. So, going fallow will not eradicate it. Most fish seem protected from it via their natural immune system; but for some reason, chromis and some other fish are not always afforded this protection. This is one pathogen you never want in your display tank. Probably the best way to manage its presence is to maintain a very clean aquarium with minimal detritus and avoid chromis damsels. This should keep the number of parasites low because you are eliminating the pathogen’s two main food sources.

Treatment OptionsA formalin or Ruby Reef Rally bath are the two best options for providing relief to an infected specimen:

Formalin (45 min bath): https://humble.fish/formalin/

Rally (90 min bath): https://humble.fish/acriflavine/

Post bath, transfer the fish into a clean/sterile QT to prevent reinfection. Then dose Chloroquine Phosphate once (60 mg/gal) or metronidazole every 48 hours for 10-14 days thereafter. This is to ensure all of the parasites have been eradicated. Remember to also food soak metronidazole during the QT period in order to eliminate the internal parasites as well.

A 5 minute freshwater dip may provide temporary relief if you are unable to locate any of the aforementioned medications right away. It is a wise course of action to always transfer the fish into a new/sterile QT following each freshwater dip to prevent reinfection.
 
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Duke4Life

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Came across this looking for other info. Never having used any of the meds mentioned but also knowing enough that you shouldn't use them with live rock. What about the live rock and corals in a tank that has this? This seems like 1 of the worse diseases.
 
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Humblefish

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Came across this looking for other info. Never having used any of the meds mentioned but also knowing enough that you shouldn't use them with live rock. What about the live rock and corals in a tank that has this? This seems like 1 of the worse diseases.
Metro might eradicate the disease in a DT and there are reports that metro can be reef safe. I'm not certain of either, however.
 

Duke4Life

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Let's take the not reef safe route. Since there is no fallow period, how would you rid the possibility of any hitchiking on coral and live rock? Curiosity setting in.
 
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Humblefish

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Its a shame that there is only one way to test this theory. Not a happy ending if the theory is disproven
It's being tested to treat dinos in this thread: https://www.reef2reef.com/threads/dinoflagellates-dinos-a-possible-cure-follow-along-and-see.253917/

But I'm still hesitant to declare it "reef safe" as metro will target anaerobic bacteria, and could thus eradicate anaerobic regions of a DT. This would probably only be a threat to systems which utilize a DSB for filtration. Plenums also encourage anaerobic areas. I'm sure deep inside rock, anaerobic bacteria exists, but aerobic bacteria near the surface probably provides the bulk of biological filtration.
 

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It's being tested to treat dinos in this thread: https://www.reef2reef.com/threads/dinoflagellates-dinos-a-possible-cure-follow-along-and-see.253917/

But I'm still hesitant to declare it "reef safe" as metro will target anaerobic bacteria, and could thus eradicate anaerobic regions of a DT. This would probably only be a threat to systems which utilize a DSB for filtration. Plenums also encourage anaerobic areas. I'm sure deep inside rock, anaerobic bacteria exists, but aerobic bacteria near the surface probably provides the bulk of biological filtration.
I assume it would come to a point where finding the neccessary dose to iraadicate this disease, and if thay much os safe in the dt
 

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Uronema marinum:

Symptoms - These are the red sores often seen on chromis damsels. The disease seems mostly confined to damsels and clownfish, but I have seen some exceptions to that.

Treatment options - This is a very difficult disease to treat. Possible treatment options include: Metronidazole (ex. Seachem MetroPlex), acriflavine (ex. Acriflavine-MS), Chloroquine phosphate and copper. The problem is the fish can never be returned to the infected tank from which it came. Uronema is a “free living” parasite which does not require a fish host. So, going fallow will not eradicate it. Most fish seem protected from it via their natural immune system; but for some reason, chromis and some other fish are not always afforded this protection. Once a tank has Uronema, it must be assumed that the disease can survive in there almost indefinitely.

Formalin bath or freshwater dip may provide temporary relief for Uronema.

Meredith or Humble...my young lattice bf has a red spot right before the beginning of his right pectoral...he seems normal in every way, eating, swimming, etc...should I jump to meds ... I have ParaGuard on hand, can get metronidazole and also have CP ...should I QT him right away...he was QT'd for a month before putting him in the DT...that with CP...since he otherwise seems well, should I wait and observe or go for something...Help...
 
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Congaken

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Meredith or Humble...my young lattice bf has a red spot right before the beginning of his right pectoral...he seems normal in every way, eating, swimming, etc...should I jump to meds ... I have ParaGuard on hand, can get metronidazole and also have CP ...should I QT him right away...he was QT'd for a month before putting him in the DT...that with CP...since he otherwise seems well, should I wait and observe or go for something...Help...
o_O
 
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@Congaken Can you post a photo, showing the red spot on him? Being it's a butterfly, the spot is more likely to be something bacterial than Uronema.
 
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Humblefish

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Does it look anything like this? Maybe just not as severe?

 
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melypr1985

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Just a millimeter or two spot at the base of the fin...now seems to be gone...we'll see tomorrow...thanks...;)
I would lean more toward bacterial as well, in which case it can heal on it's own or get out of hand. If it's gone already, that's a good thing but let us know tomorrow if it comes back or gets worse
 

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I would lean more toward bacterial as well, in which case it can heal on it's own or get out of hand. If it's gone already, that's a good thing but let us know tomorrow if it comes back or gets worse
Well...the right one is gone, but there is a small one on the left side...odd, eh?...so lets see what happens...any antibiotic that will work in a fowlr with motile inverts?...If he needs treatment, I really hate to take him out unless no choice...do have a QT set up...but:confused:
 

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@Humblefish could you make the case to prophylactically treat all incoming fish with acriflavine and/or API general cure (over PraziPro) to keep Uronema from ever entering a system? Or would one acriflavine bath and two applications of general cure not successfully knock it out. I say this for those who don't have access to CP or have CP sensitive fish.
 
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Humblefish

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Well...the right one is gone, but there is a small one on the left side...odd, eh?...so lets see what happens...any antibiotic that will work in a fowlr with motile inverts?...If he needs treatment, I really hate to take him out unless no choice...do have a QT set up...but:confused:
You could soak an antibiotic (ex. erythromycin, kanamycin) in with his food, if you also used a binder (ex. Seachem Focus) to prevent the medication from leaching out.

@Humblefish could you make the case to prophylactically treat all incoming fish with acriflavine and/or API general cure (over PraziPro) to keep Uronema from ever entering a system? Or would one acriflavine bath and two applications of general cure not successfully knock it out. I say this for those who don't have access to CP or have CP sensitive fish.

Treating with General Cure or just metronidazole (ex. Seachem Metroplex) would be a wise course of action for Uronema prone species i.e. any member of the damsel family. You can safely mix metro with most other medications.
 

Congaken

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You could soak an antibiotic (ex. erythromycin, kanamycin) in with his food, if you also used a binder (ex. Seachem Focus) to prevent the medication from leaching out.



Treating with General Cure or just metronidazole (ex. Seachem Metroplex) would be a wise course of action for Uronema prone species i.e. any member of the damsel family. You can safely mix metro with most other medications.
I have MetoPlex and Focus...so whatever the infection seems to be...I'll start a course tomorrow...of course, other fish will eat it too...the bf generally eats live little-necks and cyclops...because of his small mouth...which do you think will be best...other fish are chromies, Kole, firefish, Singapore, Niger and diamnd goby...
 
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