Dinoflagellate Identification Guide

taricha

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I've had this laying around for a while. Had some recent interest, so I tweaked it a bit and am posting it.
Not really about cures just ID pictures, videos, and a few short facts.

Hope it can be helpful.
 

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ScottB

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I've had this laying around for a while. Had some recent interest, so I tweaked it a bit and am posting it.
Not really about cures just ID pictures, videos, and a few short facts.

Hope it can be helpful.

I wouldn't want to put you out of a "job" or anything, but this should be a sticky. And linked on Page 1 of @mcarroll "are you tired" thread.

Marvelous work here taricha. Your descriptions really bring clarity to image cues and movement behavior.

If this becomes a sticky, what are you going to do with all your spare time? (Please go back to work on cyano hint hint.)

Thank you for your service to the community!

Sincerely,
Cyano
 
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taricha

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If this becomes a sticky, what are you going to do with all your spare time? (Please go back to work on cyano hint hint.)
haha. Well, it's true that I have lots of projects on various back burners, but this is mostly posted to communicate to everyone what those of us who ID are looking for.
Don't worry, still very much looking into conditions that support nuisance growth. :)
 
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ScottB

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@taricha
Can i ask you if this are Ostreopsis or Amphidinium to understand what's better for my tank?
Thanks
Hard to tell from the pic, but the movement picked up in the video shows the Ostreopsis swim pattern.

Are you good with your next steps?
 

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Is UV lamp the solution?
I've a 125G dsb tank, is it dangerous to use? If not, i've in cellar a 20w UV lamp. It' s enough?
Thanks for yuour answer
 

ScottB

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Is UV lamp the solution?
I've a 125G dsb tank, is it dangerous to use? If not, i've in cellar a 20w UV lamp. It' s enough?
Thanks for yuour answer
Yes, for that species UV is safe and effective if deployed properly. It is recommended to have 1 watt per 3 gallons, with slow flow through it, and to have it running TO & FROM the DISPLAY, not in the sump. You can try your under-sized unit for now and see if it can sterilize your dinos.

Also, the dinos have likely depleted your nutrients. You should raise your nitrates and phosphates to 10-15 and greater than .1 respectively. Dosing those is the fastest way.

You should also run activated carbon as those dinos release toxins. Export the dinos as much as possible. I affix sheets of the blue/white filter floss in areas that the dinos like to populate. Rinse each evening. It helps keep them off the corals.
 
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Reeffraff

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@taricha
Can you provide any additional information or observations about the Symbiodinium-like (Chrysophyte?) cells described in your ID guide? I definitely have a few patches that have developed in my sand bed. Under the microscope the cells are TINY (approx. 10 um) and motionless as you describe. They are embedded in a thick mucus. They don't seem to be spreading rapidly but just wondering if you've ever heard of these becoming a problem in people's tanks?
20200420_144853.jpg
20200420_145654.jpg
 
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taricha

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They don't seem to be spreading rapidly but just wondering if you've ever heard of these becoming a problem in people's tanks?
Yes. Sometimes they can grow quite heavily. But don't assume any nutrient similarities to dino just because of the appearance.
two good chrysophyte threads:

 

DRTYshredCo

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Thank you for this!! Looks like I have Ostreopsis Dino. Looking for battle advice... Long story short, my tank had cycled but was still immature (5 mo) and a family member over fed (~10x normal) while we were on vacation. Nitrate spiked from a stable .5 (from side of salifert kit, matched with 5) to 50+ ppm (from top). After multiple water changes and months of minimal feeding I got them to reduce and stabilize at ~5 ppm. A few mo later I had a massive Cyano bloom (red, came off in sheets) that I battled via manual removal in hopes it would go away over time. Battled for 1.5 mo. Eventually it grew in so thick that it was covering patches of zoa and I used Chemiclean after a thorough manual removal. After a 25% water change I began dosing MB7 to establish beneficial bacteria. About a week later the Cyano returned and another Chemiclean treatment was initiated. During treatment I noticed a new Dino bloom in long strings with bubbles. Although I know I should not do water changes in order to slow the Dino down, I had to again per Chemiclean instructions. I am now post second 25% water change and hoping to beat Dino now that Cyano appears to be gone. I have continued to manually remove any Dino strings I find and have began to use Dino X due to how heavy and quickly the Dino appeared. Dino X advised no carbon and wet skimming to increase likelihood of product impact. My plan forward is to continue dosing MB7 while battling Dino with Dino X (skimmer off for 4 hr during MB7 dose) as needed and to keep feeding schedule the same in order to keep nitrate ~5 ppm. Please send any other recommendations any of you may have.

Mixed reef
IM Nuvo 30L
IM midsize DC skimmer
Ample flow (Jebao & Koralia Nano 240)
Carbon (paused while using Dino X)

Parameters after H2O change w reef crystals
Sal 1.024
Temp 76 avg
Alk 9.8 (letting drop back down to ~9)
Ca 390 (slowly raising to ~420)
Mg 1170 (dropped after H2O Ch, slowly raising to 1300-1350)
PH 8
Nitrate 5ppm
Phosphate ~0, hard to tell with API

1 Wrasse and 2 clown all healthy
Multiple snails and hermits
GHA bloom as well, keeping at it manually.

Please send recommendations, I know time is the most valuable asset but the Cyano and Dino really came in heavy and quick and we’re taking over my LPS & SPS. Already big on husbandry as well.

D1E27F37-7A48-4DE4-A2B8-BE876B5649C8.png
 

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ScottB

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Thank you for this!! Looks like I have Ostreopsis Dino. Looking for battle advice... Long story short, my tank had cycled but was still immature (5 mo) and a family member over fed (~10x normal) while we were on vacation. Nitrate spiked from a stable .5 (from side of salifert kit, matched with 5) to 50+ ppm (from top). After multiple water changes and months of minimal feeding I got them to reduce and stabilize at ~5 ppm. A few mo later I had a massive Cyano bloom (red, came off in sheets) that I battled via manual removal in hopes it would go away over time. Battled for 1.5 mo. Eventually it grew in so thick that it was covering patches of zoa and I used Chemiclean after a thorough manual removal. After a 25% water change I began dosing MB7 to establish beneficial bacteria. About a week later the Cyano returned and another Chemiclean treatment was initiated. During treatment I noticed a new Dino bloom in long strings with bubbles. Although I know I should not do water changes in order to slow the Dino down, I had to again per Chemiclean instructions. I am now post second 25% water change and hoping to beat Dino now that Cyano appears to be gone. I have continued to manually remove any Dino strings I find and have began to use Dino X due to how heavy and quickly the Dino appeared. Dino X advised no carbon and wet skimming to increase likelihood of product impact. My plan forward is to continue dosing MB7 while battling Dino with Dino X (skimmer off for 4 hr during MB7 dose) as needed and to keep feeding schedule the same in order to keep nitrate ~5 ppm. Please send any other recommendations any of you may have.

Mixed reef
IM Nuvo 30L
IM midsize DC skimmer
Ample flow (Jebao & Koralia Nano 240)
Carbon (paused while using Dino X)

Parameters after H2O change w reef crystals
Sal 1.024
Temp 76 avg
Alk 9.8 (letting drop back down to ~9)
Ca 390 (slowly raising to ~420)
Mg 1170 (dropped after H2O Ch, slowly raising to 1300-1350)
PH 8
Nitrate 5ppm
Phosphate ~0, hard to tell with API

1 Wrasse and 2 clown all healthy
Multiple snails and hermits
GHA bloom as well, keeping at it manually.

Please send recommendations, I know time is the most valuable asset but the Cyano and Dino really came in heavy and quick and we’re taking over my LPS & SPS. Already big on husbandry as well.

D1E27F37-7A48-4DE4-A2B8-BE876B5649C8.png
The pattern you described is the classic one: drastic swings in nutrients. First it is cyano, then dinos. The Chemiclean seals the deal. I've read the same story in the "Are you tired" thread >100 times.

Good news: Ostreos are easy to treat. Bad news: they are fairly toxic and tough on the corals that are weakend by the lack of nutrient -- PO4 particularly.

1) Start dosing PO4 immediately. Seachem Flourish or NeoPhos are fine premixes. You can take the dosing instructions provided and double them -- even triple them in the first few days -- as your rock and substrate will bind the first 50ml or so.
2) Once you have a steady PO4 reading of .08 or so, you can begin dosing NO3: Neonitro is fine
3) Order a UV pronto. 1 watt per 3 gallons. You can get the Green Killing machine, but it will rust within a month and you should chuck it. Aqua UV makes a much better unit that you can run forever. This needs to run in/out of the display itself, not the sump. Slow flow.
4) Manual removal: clip some sheets of filter floss to the sides of the glass in high flow high light areas where dinos like to be. Rinse each evening.
6) Run activated carbon. Replace often. Toxin removal.
7) No phyto, no aminos, no coral foods. Feed the fish only.

For testing:
PO4 you must have a Hanna ULR (phosphate or phosphorus) Target: .1
NO3 I prefer NYOS, but most of the tests are OK. Target: 10

Once the UV is running, and the nutrients are measurable, you should see results within 3-4 days. Keep dosing and testing. Once you see the cyano return (it will) keep going. Syphon out the cyano.

Don't stop until your microscope tells you it is OK.
 

DRTYshredCo

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The pattern you described is the classic one: drastic swings in nutrients. First it is cyano, then dinos. The Chemiclean seals the deal. I've read the same story in the "Are you tired" thread >100 times.

Good news: Ostreos are easy to treat. Bad news: they are fairly toxic and tough on the corals that are weakend by the lack of nutrient -- PO4 particularly.

1) Start dosing PO4 immediately. Seachem Flourish or NeoPhos are fine premixes. You can take the dosing instructions provided and double them -- even triple them in the first few days -- as your rock and substrate will bind the first 50ml or so.
2) Once you have a steady PO4 reading of .08 or so, you can begin dosing NO3: Neonitro is fine
3) Order a UV pronto. 1 watt per 3 gallons. You can get the Green Killing machine, but it will rust within a month and you should chuck it. Aqua UV makes a much better unit that you can run forever. This needs to run in/out of the display itself, not the sump. Slow flow.
4) Manual removal: clip some sheets of filter floss to the sides of the glass in high flow high light areas where dinos like to be. Rinse each evening.
6) Run activated carbon. Replace often. Toxin removal.
7) No phyto, no aminos, no coral foods. Feed the fish only.

For testing:
PO4 you must have a Hanna ULR (phosphate or phosphorus) Target: .1
NO3 I prefer NYOS, but most of the tests are OK. Target: 10

Once the UV is running, and the nutrients are measurable, you should see results within 3-4 days. Keep dosing and testing. Once you see the cyano return (it will) keep going. Syphon out the cyano.

Don't stop until your microscope tells you it is OK.
Much love Scott! Thank you
 

DRTYshredCo

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In search of progress against Ostreopsis Dino I found these critters and trying to ID. They are oval shaped, roly-poly / potato bug like, transparent blue, walk like a roomba, and appear to have a small tail.

Good news is that Dino bloom has slowed a bit so far. Installed the 11w midsize UV skimmer from IM and inserted activated carbon. Still waiting on Amazon to ship NeoPhos and NeoNitro (delayed :confused:) as none of my LFS in San Diego seem to carry N / P additives, only removers.

Edit: sample was taken from a web that was blown off of my closed up mini blasto colony in anticipation that it was a dino string.

@ScottB @taricha
Video:

CritterID.jpg
 
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