macro algae index......

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Worldwide: Nova Scotia, Western Atlantic, Canada to Florida.



Gracilaria verrucosa



Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Paperfuss

Characteristics

Plants bushy, 1-3dm tall, with age often becoming free, texture firmly fleshy, colour dull purplish, grayish or grenish translucent, branches 0.5-2 mm diameter, repeatedly dividing, alternately or occasionally dichotomously branched with numerous lateral proliferations, terete throughout, tapering to the ultimate branchlets, cells of the medulla 300-450 micron diameter, with rather thin walls, cortex of 2-3 layers of small cells, tetrasporangia numerous, scattered over the branchlets, oval, from the surface 22-30 micron diameter, in section 30-33 micron long, cystocarps very prominent, often numerous.

Distribution :Okha,(Gujrat) Bombay,(Maharashtra) Goa .

Ecological status : Mangrove swamps, brackish water.

IUCN status : EN

Uses : It is used as raw material for agar manufacture. It is also eaten raw as salad or cooked with vegetables, animal feed.

Halimeda copiosa1




Large-leaf hanging vine
Halimeda copiosa
Goreau & Graham, 1967

Description:
Plants form long chains of rectangular-shaped, relative large, leaf-like, calcified segments, which are held together by a thin strand running through their centers. Strands may branch frequently and may reach a length of 60 cm. Segments green to yellowish green on top, underside often lighter. Segments nearly 2 cm in width.

Habitat:
Tend to grow in shaded areas of the reef, often hanging from ledge undercuts and along walls, down to 60 m.

Distribution:
Abundant to common South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean.


Halimeda discoidea





Halimeda Taenicole



Halimeda is a calcareous green algae of siphonous construction forming a coencytic 3D structure consisting of interwoven filaments. Put simply Halimeda is a giant web of strings of cells that are joined together to form a large semi-rigid structure. The taxonomic classification of Halimeda places it under the same class and order as the prolific Caulerpa (an invasive species that is causing havoc in tropical areas), but divides into the family Halimediaceae.

There are around 25-30 species of Halimeda, this figure varies by the indices used for identification and the species definition used. Most species are exclusively marine, with one single freshwater species (see quote).
Halimeda copiosa | Halimeda cryptica | Halimeda cylindracea | Halimeda discoidea | Halimeda gigas | Halimeda goreauii | Halimeda gracilis | Halimeda hummii | Halimeda incrassata | Halimeda incrassata | Halimeda lacrimosa | Halimeda macroloba | Halimeda macrophysa | Halimeda magnidisca | Halimeda melanesica | Halimeda monile | Halimeda opuntia | Halimeda scabra | Halimeda simulans | Halimeda taenicola | Halimeda tuna | Halimeda velasquezii

Members of the Halimeda genus are very distinct. Commonly called the money plant as it is reminiscent of numerous small coins joined end to end. Scientifically the plant is recognisable by the entire plants being comprised of numerous flat segments ranging between 0.5 cm to 5 cm in diameter. The structure is semi-rigid with each segment being calcified in the form of calcium carbonate aragonite crystals and connected together via uncalcified flexible nodes (aka geniculae).

The holdfast system of Halimeda is psammophytic (see picture below). The root like holdfast can attach in almost any benthic substrate such as mud / loose sand or rock, this gives Halimeda a tremendous advantage over other species of algae and is the main factor behind the colonisation of bare areas by Halimeda species.

The presence of hard calcium carbonate within the tissues make the plant inedible to most herbivores. Although calcification is a useful adaptation it does have problems, for instance if the plant was entirely calcified, wave action and collisions with water borne particles or pelagic organisms could break parts of the plant off with very little energy. Also ocean acidification could pose a threat in the near future. The adaptation of having a partially calcified structure is not specific to Halimeda, other algae such as Corallina offiincialis has also evolved this adaptation.



This algae is capable of living under low-moderate light, it will grow strongest in moderate to high lighting. All macros present some risk of going sexual and releasing carbon dioxide into you aqaurium. However, the risk of adverse ph changes from the release of carbon from this species is extremely low. Because this plant uses calcium to grow, you should keep your tank within 350-450 ppm of calcium for best results.
 
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Halimeda incrassata




Halimeda macroloba




Halimeda micronesica





Halimeda opuntia




Halimeda tuna



Halodule uninervis





Gregarious marine herb; rhizome 1.5– 2.5 mm in diam.; each node with 1– 6 roots and erect stem to 5 cm long; internodes 0.5– 5 cm long; scales ovate or elliptic, 4– 9 mm long. Leaf with sheath 1– 4 cm long; blade sometimes falcate, 5– 18 cm long, 0.25– 3.5 mm wide, base narrowed, apex with 2 linear lateral teeth and an obtuse (rarely acute) median tooth, midrib conspicuous, widening near the apex and sometimes furcate or bicuspidate. Staminate flower with pedicel 6– 20 mm long; anthers 2– 5 mm long, red, the upper anther attached 0.2– 0.5 mm above the lower. Pistillate flower with globose to ovoid ovary 1– 2 mm long, style 10– 42 mm long, terminal or lateral. Fruit ovoid to globose, slightly compressed, 1.5– 2.5 mm long and 1.7– 2 mm in diam., with a 0.2– 1 mm long apical or lateral beak. Fig. 3.

This is an eurybiontic species. Its growth habit makes it a good substratum stabilizer and sediment accumulator. The leaf size varies with the substratum, being broader (up to 3.5 mm wide) in sheltered muddy areas and narrower (1mm wide) in exposed sandy shores. In Port Dickson, the average standing biomass was as 1.09g dry wt. m-2 in 1994. [1]


Halodule wrightii




Halophila ovalis








Halophila ovalis is a seagrass in the family Hydrocharitaceae, a common name is paddle weed. It is a small herbaceous plant that occurs in sea beds and other saltwater environments.

The plant occurs around reefs, estuaries, islands, inter-tidal areas, on soft sand or mud substrates. The leaves are ovate in outline, appearing on stems that emerge from rhizome beneath the sand. The roots get up to 800 mm long and covered in fine root hairs. It is often found in meadows that dominate a sand bank or other patch of sea floor. The arrangement of the plant, above and below ground, provides stability to the sea floor and habitat for other species. It is used as food by dugong, as is therefore known as dugong grass.

It is a low lying seagrass that is relatively easy to keep, and does not require the deep sand bed, or intense lighting other seagrasses do. It will do fine with a sand bed 2 inches or deeper, and can survive well with 3 watts or more of full spectum lighting, with 4 watts per gallon of full spectrum being ideal. It should be planted into the sand, with the leaves allowed to poke out. You may find it difficult to plant, as it is fragile to the touch, and light. Because of this the job is made easier if you plant it with the flow in your tank turned off. If you are still having trouble, gently tie it to a small pebble, (or similar item), between the leaves with fishing line, and then place it in your tank, covering th exposed roots still remaining with sand and then, gently pull the leaves above the sand. Until the roots establish themselves in your tank, you should try to keep the flow reduced in the area the grass is planted. After established, it is likely this patch will spread to the rest of the nearby sandy areas in due time.


Halophila spinulosa

 
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Macroalgae Index

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Gelidium microdon


Description:
Cartilaginous, purplish or blackish red, turf-forming, 2-10 mm high, arising from an extensive creeping base and incorporating shell debris and small molluscs. Erect fronds flattened and leaf-like and 0.5-2 mm broad.

Key characteristics:
Turf formation in the upper intertidal, blackish-red colour when slightly dry, and extensive rhizoids.

Habitat:
On rock in upper intertidal forming extensive mat-like growths below Pelvetia canaliculata, particularly on vertical or near-vertical surfaces. Sometimes associated with Catenella opuntia and Audouinella purpurea. Widely distributed, common.

Similar species
Catenella opuntia also forms turf- or mat-like extensions but is softer has has the appearance of small cocktail sausages.




Gelidium pusillum



Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jollis

Characteristics
Description: Cartilaginous, brownish-red, purplish or blackish-red, turf-forming, 2-10 mm high, arising from an extensive creeping base and incorporating shell debris and small gastropods. Erect fronds flattened and leaf-like and 0.5-2 mm broad.
Habitat: On rock in upper intertidal forming extensive mat-like growths below Pelvetia canaliculata, particularly on vertical or near-vertical surfaces. Sometimes associated with Catenella opuntia and Rhodochorton purpureum. Widely distributed, common
Plants small, solitary or forming loose turfs, creeping below, giving rise to erect blades 5-15mm long subcylindrical below, flattened about 0.5-0.75 mm. Broad above, sparsely pinnately proliferating, central part composed of slender colourless filaments with exceedingly thick confluent walls, surrounded by the inner cortex of short large cells and the epidermal layer of rounded angular cells. Slightly elongated lengthwise of the axis, about 4-10 micron surface diameter, rhizines in the stalklike portions subcortical, in the blade portions invading the medulla, often seemingly absent altogether.


Ecological status : Littoral zone.
Uses : It is one of the potential species as source of agar.

Gelidium sesquipedale


Very strong, rigid and cartilagineous thallus, fixed to the substrate by a system of claw-like rhizoids; principal axes carry secundary axes, usually long and branched on a plan; narrow branches (2mm wide) mostly of the same dimensions, non branched in their inferior half; up to 35cm.
Dark red.
Perennial species, found year round in shaded, exposed, infralittoral biotopes.




Gelidium


Gracilaria curtissae


Scientific:Gracilaria curtissae


Common:Red Macroalgae or Ruby Red Alga
Size:up to 0 cm


Temperature:73.4 °F - 82.4 °F (23°C - 28°C)
Food:Zooxanthellae / Light
Aquarium:11 gal (~ 50L)¹ [~ 125 Liter²]
degree of difficultyacceptable
Popular name: Ruby Red Alga
Range: Circumtropical and sub-tropical
Size: Individual thalli grow to about 45cm (18 inches) in length.


Gracilaria salicornia

Habitat:
Gracilaria salicornia grows in tidepools and reef flats of about 3 feet deep water. And it is usually not in active water. But the water has some ocassional waves in it.

Range (include invasive, native, endemic): Gracilaria salicornia is an invasive species. It did not originally come from Hawaii. It is also an Indo-Pacific species though so it came from somewhere in the Pacific. It ranges from around 3 feet of water, to about 5 feet.

Trophic information: Gracilaria salicornia doesn't actually "eat" anything, instead it photosynthesizes. It also sucks in nutrients from the water that it finds. The things that eat Gracilaria salicornia are some people, fish, and other little animals that munch on it or live inside it.

Safety: Gracilaria salicornia is not dangerous but can be very slippery if you decide that you want to step on it. But you should not step on it because you will kill it. I don't know if you can eat it so you might not want to try just in case for safety issues.

Comments: Gracilaria salicornia is often confused with Gracilaria coronopifolia but they are not the same algae. Gracilaria coronopifolia is a skinnier algae and it is a different color than the Gracilaria salicornia. If you look at one of the other red algae pages, then you will be able to find what it looks like.

Gracilaria tikvahiae
 
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Description

Thallus 12-15 cm tall, comprised of finely branched clumps, irregularly branched, 1mm wide. Axes compressed or flattened,with short laterals bering more slender than axes with spinous branchlets. Branching mostly dichotomous, but can be highly irregular, with dichotomous below, alternate above and dichotomous at apices. Apices tapered and pointed, often unevenly forked with one side longer than the other. In the wild, the plant can range from dark green to shades of red and brown.

The morphology of this alga is highly variable. Plants grown commercially are often completely dichotomously branched with axes and branches of nearly the same diameter throughout. Cultured plants are often very dark green to nearly black.

Structural Features

Medullary cells irregular, 70-270 mm diam. Cortex is 2-3 cells thick; surface cells round to angular, 5-13 mm diam., densely pigmented. Tetrasporangia oval to spherical, 10-35 mm diam., 17-45 mm long, cruciately divided, scattered in surface layers. Spermatangia in sori, scattered. Cystocarps hemispherical, to 1mm diam., numerous; carposporangia spherical to oval, 15-40 mm diam.

Habitat
Gracilaria tikvahiae is found intertidal, less that 1 meter, attached to limestone and basalt substrates. In the Caribbean and Florida where it is very common, G. tikvahiae is found in protected and high-energy intertidal habitats in estuaries and bays to 10 meters deep. This plant may grow unattached or attached to rocks or coral rubble.

Distribution
Hawai‘i: Near Oceanic Institute, Makapu’u, O‘ahu.

Mechanism of Introduction: This species was brought to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida in 1987 for commercial mariculture.

Worldwide: Nova Scotia, Western Atlantic, Canada to Florida.

Gracilaria verrucosa


Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Paperfuss

Characteristics

Plants bushy, 1-3dm tall, with age often becoming free, texture firmly fleshy, colour dull purplish, grayish or grenish translucent, branches 0.5-2 mm diameter, repeatedly dividing, alternately or occasionally dichotomously branched with numerous lateral proliferations, terete throughout, tapering to the ultimate branchlets, cells of the medulla 300-450 micron diameter, with rather thin walls, cortex of 2-3 layers of small cells, tetrasporangia numerous, scattered over the branchlets, oval, from the surface 22-30 micron diameter, in section 30-33 micron long, cystocarps very prominent, often numerous.

Distribution :Okha,(Gujrat) Bombay,(Maharashtra) Goa .

Ecological status : Mangrove swamps, brackish water.

IUCN status : EN

Uses : It is used as raw material for agar manufacture. It is also eaten raw as salad or cooked with vegetables, animal feed.


Halimeda copiosa1

Large-leaf hanging vine
Halimeda copiosa
Goreau & Graham, 1967

Description:
Plants form long chains of rectangular-shaped, relative large, leaf-like, calcified segments, which are held together by a thin strand running through their centers. Strands may branch frequently and may reach a length of 60 cm. Segments green to yellowish green on top, underside often lighter. Segments nearly 2 cm in width.

Habitat:
Tend to grow in shaded areas of the reef, often hanging from ledge undercuts and along walls, down to 60 m.

Distribution:
Abundant to common South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean.


Halimeda discoidea


Halimeda Taenicole

Halimeda is a calcareous green algae of siphonous construction forming a coencytic 3D structure consisting of interwoven filaments. Put simply Halimeda is a giant web of strings of cells that are joined together to form a large semi-rigid structure. The taxonomic classification of Halimeda places it under the same class and order as the prolific Caulerpa (an invasive species that is causing havoc in tropical areas), but divides into the family Halimediaceae.

There are around 25-30 species of Halimeda, this figure varies by the indices used for identification and the species definition used. Most species are exclusively marine, with one single freshwater species (see quote).
Halimeda copiosa | Halimeda cryptica | Halimeda cylindracea | Halimeda discoidea | Halimeda gigas | Halimeda goreauii | Halimeda gracilis | Halimeda hummii | Halimeda incrassata | Halimeda incrassata | Halimeda lacrimosa | Halimeda macroloba | Halimeda macrophysa | Halimeda magnidisca | Halimeda melanesica | Halimeda monile | Halimeda opuntia | Halimeda scabra | Halimeda simulans | Halimeda taenicola | Halimeda tuna | Halimeda velasquezii

Members of the Halimeda genus are very distinct. Commonly called the money plant as it is reminiscent of numerous small coins joined end to end. Scientifically the plant is recognisable by the entire plants being comprised of numerous flat segments ranging between 0.5 cm to 5 cm in diameter. The structure is semi-rigid with each segment being calcified in the form of calcium carbonate aragonite crystals and connected together via uncalcified flexible nodes (aka geniculae).

The holdfast system of Halimeda is psammophytic (see picture below). The root like holdfast can attach in almost any benthic substrate such as mud / loose sand or rock, this gives Halimeda a tremendous advantage over other species of algae and is the main factor behind the colonisation of bare areas by Halimeda species.

The presence of hard calcium carbonate within the tissues make the plant inedible to most herbivores. Although calcification is a useful adaptation it does have problems, for instance if the plant was entirely calcified, wave action and collisions with water borne particles or pelagic organisms could break parts of the plant off with very little energy. Also ocean acidification could pose a threat in the near future. The adaptation of having a partially calcified structure is not specific to Halimeda, other algae such as Corallina offiincialis has also evolved this adaptation.



This algae is capable of living under low-moderate light, it will grow strongest in moderate to high lighting. All macros present some risk of going sexual and releasing carbon dioxide into you aqaurium. However, the risk of adverse ph changes from the release of carbon from this species is extremely low. Because this plant uses calcium to grow, you should keep your tank within 350-450 ppm of calcium for best results.


Halimeda incrassata


Halimeda macroloba


Halimeda micronesica



Halimeda opuntia


Halimeda tuna



Halodule uninervis

Gregarious marine herb; rhizome 1.5– 2.5 mm in diam.; each node with 1– 6 roots and erect stem to 5 cm long; internodes 0.5– 5 cm long; scales ovate or elliptic, 4– 9 mm long. Leaf with sheath 1– 4 cm long; blade sometimes falcate, 5– 18 cm long, 0.25– 3.5 mm wide, base narrowed, apex with 2 linear lateral teeth and an obtuse (rarely acute) median tooth, midrib conspicuous, widening near the apex and sometimes furcate or bicuspidate. Staminate flower with pedicel 6– 20 mm long; anthers 2– 5 mm long, red, the upper anther attached 0.2– 0.5 mm above the lower. Pistillate flower with globose to ovoid ovary 1– 2 mm long, style 10– 42 mm long, terminal or lateral. Fruit ovoid to globose, slightly compressed, 1.5– 2.5 mm long and 1.7– 2 mm in diam., with a 0.2– 1 mm long apical or lateral beak. Fig. 3.

This is an eurybiontic species. Its growth habit makes it a good substratum stabilizer and sediment accumulator. The leaf size varies with the substratum, being broader (up to 3.5 mm wide) in sheltered muddy areas and narrower (1mm wide) in exposed sandy shores. In Port Dickson, the average standing biomass was as 1.09g dry wt. m-2 in 1994. [1]
 
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Halodule wrightii


Halophila ovalis





Halophila ovalis is a seagrass in the family Hydrocharitaceae, a common name is paddle weed. It is a small herbaceous plant that occurs in sea beds and other saltwater environments.

The plant occurs around reefs, estuaries, islands, inter-tidal areas, on soft sand or mud substrates. The leaves are ovate in outline, appearing on stems that emerge from rhizome beneath the sand. The roots get up to 800 mm long and covered in fine root hairs. It is often found in meadows that dominate a sand bank or other patch of sea floor. The arrangement of the plant, above and below ground, provides stability to the sea floor and habitat for other species. It is used as food by dugong, as is therefore known as dugong grass.

It is a low lying seagrass that is relatively easy to keep, and does not require the deep sand bed, or intense lighting other seagrasses do. It will do fine with a sand bed 2 inches or deeper, and can survive well with 3 watts or more of full spectum lighting, with 4 watts per gallon of full spectrum being ideal. It should be planted into the sand, with the leaves allowed to poke out. You may find it difficult to plant, as it is fragile to the touch, and light. Because of this the job is made easier if you plant it with the flow in your tank turned off. If you are still having trouble, gently tie it to a small pebble, (or similar item), between the leaves with fishing line, and then place it in your tank, covering th exposed roots still remaining with sand and then, gently pull the leaves above the sand. Until the roots establish themselves in your tank, you should try to keep the flow reduced in the area the grass is planted. After established, it is likely this patch will spread to the rest of the nearby sandy areas in due time.


Halophila spinulosa





Halymenia





Halymenia duchassaignii









This red seaweed can grow quite large and is commonly seen on Singapore's shores, but in isolated clumps.

Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Rhodophyta Florideophyceae Halymeniales Halymeniaceae Halymenia duchassaignii
Habitat
Individuals are attached to hard bottom substrata, mostly around reefs.
Distribution
Africa (Cameroon, Gabon), Bangladesh, Cape Verde Islands, Caribbean Sea
(Panama, Cuba, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles).
Characteristics
Halymenia duchassaingii is a pale-yellow to cream-colored alga with a flat, slippery or rubbery texture characterized by the rough surface of the thallus due to surface projections called papillae. The cortex is composed of four to six cell layers of small cells that surround laxly organized filiform medullary filaments embedded within a mucilaginous substance.





Hydrolithon boergesenii





Hymenocladia usnea





Hypnea cervicornis



Species Name:
Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh


Common Name:
Hooked Red Weed (Note, this is a collective term not specific to this species.

Species Description:
Hypnea cervicornis is a Rhodophycean algae with a wiry, entangled form. It is yellow in color under conditions of strong sunlight, but becomes a darker brown-red color when shaded. Its branches are short and pointed, with branchlets that appear tendril-like. H. cervicornis lives attached to rocks or corals via a holdfast, or as an epiphyte on other plants. It grows 3-30 cm tall to depths of 10 m (Littler and Littler 1989).
 
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Hypnea musciformis





Description

Clumps or masses of loosely intertwined, cylindrical branches, 10 - 20 cm tall, 0.5 - 1.0 cm diameter, that become progressively more slender towards tips. Firm, cartilaginous, highly branched. Branching is variable and irregular, often tendril-like and twisted around axes of other algae. The ends of many axes and branches are flattened with broad hooks. Holdfasts are small, inconspicuous, or lacking. Usually red, but can be yellowish brown in high light environments or nutrient poor waters.

Easily distinguished from other native Hypnea spp. by the presence of flattened, broad hooks at the tips of the branches (see arrow on above figure). Often found as an epiphyte on reef algae such as Sargassum echinocarpum, Sargassum polyphyllum, and Acanthophora spicifera.

Structural Features

Medulla appear parenchymatous around central axial cell; cortical filaments with few divisions on radii, outer layer pigmented. Tetrasporangia zonately divided, in raised nemathecia, usually on ultimate branches; spermatangia borne in chains in slightly swollen nemathecia at base of branchlets. Cystocarps conspicuous, rounded, without discharge pore.

Habitat
Hypnea musciformis is common on calm intertidal and shallow subtidal reef flats, tidepools and on rocky intertidal benches. Most often found low intertidal to shallow subtidal reef flats, attached to sandy flat rocks, or frequently epiphytic on Sargassum and other algae. In bloom stage, may be found free-floating.

Distribution
Hawai‘i: O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Maui.

Mechanism of Introduction: Introduced to Kane‘ohe Bay in 1974 for commercial cultivation.

Worldwide: Mediterranean, Philippines, Indian Ocean, Caribbean to Uruguay.


Hypnea musciformis is a highly opportunistic invader well known for its large floating blooms in coastal Maui. Large biomass washes up on the beaches of O‘ahu and Maui. This alga is easily identified by the flattened, broad hooks at the end of many branches.

Janiarubens




Description: Calcareous articulated frond growing from a crustose base and stolons. Branching dichotomously to 2.5 cms long.

Habitat: Rare. Epiphytic in the upper sublittoral and to a depth of 8 m.

Distribution: British Isles from Ireland, Scotland, Wales, south-west England, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Europe: Mediterranean, Azores, Portugal, Atlantic coast of Spain and France, Netherlands and the Baltic Sea. Atlantic coast of North America: North Carolina to Argentina. Further afield: Jamaica, the Canary Islands.

Similar Species: Corallina is similar but pinnately branched.
Characteristics

Plant small, densely caespitose, the angle of dichotomy acute and branches somewhat curved, segments sub-cuneate at the branchings, otherwise cylindrical, 100 to 160µ in diameter, about 4 to 6 times as long as broad, the branches tapering or acute at the apices; conceptacles borne at the upper forking, urn-shaped, often with horn-like projections.

Distribution :Gujarat, Malvan, (Maharashtra)

Ecological status : Intertidal zone.
Uses : Medicine



Kallymenia reniformis





Description:
Thin, flattened, purplish red fronds, with small discoid holdfast and short stipe, to 350 mm high, 0.5-1.5 times as broad as long. Blade obovate, entire or cleft into obovate or wedge-shaped segments.

Habitat: On rock in shady pools, low intertidal and subtidal to nn m, south and west coasts, occasional.

Similar species: Meredithis microphylla.

Soft, flattened, leaf-like, undulated thallus; short, often branched stipe, fixed to the substrate by a small disc; the margins often carry dense proliferations; up to 20cm.
Deep red to purple red.
The gametophyte and the sporophite are similar.
Perennial Species, giving new proliferations each year; found year round in exposed, shaded rocky environments of the infralittoral stage.
A flat red species with a thin (to 375 µm) but strong blade growing into large lobes usually broader than long (18cm x 12 cm, occasionally larger). Older fronds are frequently split and characteristically develop kidney-shaped proliferations which resemble the young frond in texture. The base of the plants is generally wedge-shaped. Plants are attached by a terete stipe 3 to 15 mm long and 1 to 2 mm in diameter. The blades are translucent and mucilaginous when young and are of a rose to dark purplish or brownish red, darkening in colour with age, and have characteristic white marks when seen underwater.
 
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kelp






Laguncularia racemosa





Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove; syn. Conocarpus racemosa) is a flowering plant in the family Combretaceae, native to the coasts of western Africa from Senegal to Cameroon, the Atlantic coast of the Americas from Bermuda, Florida, the Bahamas, Mexico, the Caribbean and south to Brazil; and on the Pacific coast of the Americas from Mexico to northwestern Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.


Laguncularia racemosa at Biscayne National Park, FloridaIt is a mangrove tree, growing to 12-18 m tall. The bark is gray-brown or reddish, and rough and fissured. Pneumatophores and/or prop roots may be present, depending on environmental conditions. The leaves are opposite, elliptical, 4–10 cm long and 2.5–5 cm broad, rounded at both ends, entire, smooth, leathery in texture, slightly fleshy, without visible veins, and yellow-green in color. The petiole is stout, reddish, 10–13 mm long, with two small glands near the blade that exude salt. The white, bell-shaped flowers are mostly bisexual and about 5 mm long. The fruit is a reddish-brown drupe, about 12–20 mm long, with longitudinal ridges. The single seed is sometimes viviparous.

It grows in coastal areas of bays, lagoons, and tidal creeks, typically growing inland of other mangroves, well above the high tide line.



Laminaria





Laminaria is a genus of 31 species of brown algae (Phaeophyceae), all sharing the common name "kelp". This economically important genus is characterized by long, leathery laminae and relatively large size. Some species are referred to by the common name Devil's apron, due to their shape,[1] or sea colander, due to the perforations present on the lamina.[2] It is found in the north Atlantic Ocean and the northern Pacific Ocean at depths from 8 to 30 m (26 to 98 ft) (exceptionally to 120 m (390 ft) in the warmer waters of the Mediterranean Sea and off Brazil).[3]



Lithophyllum incrustans




Thick calcareous crust, well adherent to the substrate: the young individuals are smooth, with margins flattened on the substrate, while older specimens are thicker, rough, undulated, with thick margins.
Violet pink to greysh violet.
The thalli are always fertile, the conceptacles are scattered under the surface and are revealed by thin pores. The gametophite and the tetrasporophite are similar.
Perennial Species, found in photophile environments at the upper level of the mediolittoral zone, and particularly abundant in exposed environments.


Lithophyllum lichenoides





VEGETATIVE FEATURES

Thallus habit: hemispherical, cushion-like (D) bearing many adventitious more or less erected lamellae with alveolated surface (A). Lamellae with entire margin; saw-like, hard, more or less anastomosed edge; basal crust strongly encrusting the substratum. Size: (4) 8-15 (45)cm diameter, height up to 2cm, lamellae thickness 0.8mm. Colour of living specimen: violet pink. Colour of dried specimen: violet grey (mauve).




Basal filaments: multilayered, straight, sometimes horizontal, rectangular cells (basal crust), long and narrow: 18-25 (30)µm long x 5 µm in diameter (lamellae) and 15-20µm long x 4-6-µm in diameter (basal crust). Erect filaments: multilayered, straight rectangular cells arranged in more or less loosely aggregated rows: 12-16µm long x 5-6µm in diameter (lamellae) and 10-15µm long x 4-5µm in diameter (basal crust) (B). Epithallial cells: arranged in 3-4 isodiametric rows: 4-6µm long x 3-6µm in diameter (B). Cell connections: secondary pit-connections.

A B

REPRODUCTIVE FEATURES


Gametangial conceptacles: spermatangial with elliptical, elongated chambers: 83-130µm in diameter x 36-52µm high; carposporangial with flask-shaped chambers: 95µm in diameter x 95-100µm high. Tetra/bisporangial conceptacles: uniporate, slightly raised (C), hemispherical, elliptical chambers: 138-156µm in diameter x 65-91µm high, frequent presence of a central columella. Other features: old spermatangial conceptacles become buried in the thallus while spermatangial and carposporangial ones become sloughed off. Phenology: ---


ECOLOGICAL FEATURES


Habitat: it grows on rocky substrata developing hemispherical cushion-like thalli, which may group to one another. In sheltered conditions the bio-constructions can be completely above the sea level up to 20-30cm. Bathymetric distribution: midlittoral. Geographic distribution: (Babbini & Bressan 1997):




Alboran Sea (A): Morocco; Western Mediterranean Sea (African shores) (B): Algeria, Tunisia; Middle Western Mediterranean Sea (C): Spain, France, Italy; North Western Mediterranean Sea (D): Spain, France, Italy; North Adriatic Sea (E): Italy, Croatia; Middle Adriatic Sea (F): Italy, Croatia; South Adriatic Sea (G): Italy, Albania; South Eastern Mediterranean Sea (H): Italy, Malta; Middle Eastern Mediterranean Sea (L): Italy, Greece; North Eastern Mediterranean Sea (M): Greece, Turkey.
 
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Lobophora variegata





Lobophora variegata is abundant on shaded surfaces. This algae is brown or orange with free edges and is stiff and lightly calcified.
Brown to orange prostrate thallus. Blades fan shaped and overlapping; comprised of a medullary layer (1 cell thick) surrounded by a cortex (2-3 cells thick). Number of outer cortical cells may be different on two different blade surfaces. Surface hairs random or in concentric lines.

Grow in most reef environments, encrusting great areas of shaded, rocky substrates. Especially abundant on undercut wall faces along deep drop-offs. Blades surfaces often covered with sediment and encrusted with epiphytes.

Distribution:
South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean.


http://revver.com/video/867167/lobophora-variegata-3/



Lomentaria articulata



Description: Soft, cylindrical, crimson to brownish red fronds, to 200 mm (normally much shorter). Much branched, axes constricted into bead-like portions, ramuli at nodes, often whorled. Base of creeping rhizoidal filaments.
Habitat: On rocks and stones in pools, lower intertidal and subtidal, generally distributed, sometimes almost zone-forming, frequent.
Distribution: Widely distributed in Britain and Ireland.

Mesophyllum mesomorphum.





Mesophyllum lichenoides




Nemastoma


Junior



Adult



Nemastoma is a genus of thalloid alga comprising approximately 9 species. Branching is approximately dichotomous. The medulla has a filamentous construction. Pneophyllum reproduces by means of conceptacles; it produces tetraspores and carpospores and dispores.

Species
The species currently recognised are:

N. canariense
N. coliforme
N. confusum
N. constrictum
N. dichotomum
N. feredayae
N. fernandezianum
N. foliaceum
N. gelatinosum
N. laciniatum
N. multifidum
N. nakamurae
 
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Neomeris sp






Neomeris annulata

Description: very distinct, fingerlike form; top is green and fuzzy and bottom is calcified and white.
Size: 4cm high
Habitat: depressions of rocks in tide pools and reef flats, and in subtidal habitats.
Order Dasycladales
Neomeris annulata pg. 31
Very distinct, fingerlike form grows 4 cm high, found in tide pools and reef flats, and in subtidal habitats. found in depressions of rocks. Top is green and fuzzy and bottom is calcified and white, rings of calcification are noticeable. Plants resemble small green cigars.


Nitophyllum punctatum





Description: Growing as tufts of blades from a discoid holdfast. Fronds up to 50 cms long and membranous, may be simple or deeply divided into wedge-shaped segments without veins. Very variable. Generally delicate, tearing easily. Spores arranged in elongate patches scattered on the frond.

Habitat: Lower littoral into the sublittoral to depths of 24 m or more.

Distribution: Widely distributed around the British Isles including Shetland. Europe: Mediterranean, Azores, Portugal, Atlantic coast of Spain, Norway. Further afield: the Canary Islands and the Black Sea.

Similar Species: Haraldiophyllum bonnemaisonii; Drachiella minuta; Rhodophyllis divaricata. The elongate reproductive patches are very distinctive.



Padina australis





Scroll Algae, or Potato Algae is a brown macroalgae or seaweed, that is common in the shallow temperate seas. Its scientific name is Padina Vickersiae.

The algae is generally found among submerged rocks and mangrove roots, just below the low tide line. Because of its shallow nature, it requires strong lighting to survive. The algae is lightly calcified, and depending on the calcium levels present in your aquarium, the algae may take on a whiter, or tanner appearance. The algae is beautifully ringed with white bands.

Description: This algae is light brown in color, with white tips because of the calcium in it.It has flat round blades that are rolled into circular disks. It grows by itself, or on rocks. It has fine little hairs on the edges of the blades.


Habitat: Padina australis is found mostly on reef flats and tide pools,in places with plenty of sunlight and shallow water.

Range (include invasive, native, endemic):

Trophic information: Since algae creates its own food through photosynthesis, Padina australis doesn;t need to get food. It is eaten by crabs, snails and all sorts of fish and shrimp. Even humans like to eat it sometimes.

Safety: This algae is not harmful when eaten, but it can be dangerous because it is very slippery on rocks. So ypu should be careful when walking in the intertidal zones.

Comments: This algae is very common and easy to find.


Penicillus capitatus



The Penicillus capitatus is a calcified macroalgae of the penicillus genus. It is also known as "Pine cone Algae". Growing to a size of about 4 inches, it will not be eaten by fish or snails, making it ideal as a display piece.
This algae is capable of living under low-moderate light, it will grow strongest in moderate to high lighting. All macros present some risk of going sexual and releasing carbon dioxide into you aqaurium. However, the risk of adverse ph changes from the release of carbon from this species is extremely low. It should be planted into your substrate, a substrate greater than 3 inches deep would be ideal.
Shaving brush alga
Penicillus capitatus
Lamarck, 1813

Description:
The plants have a long stalk, up to 10 cm, and an oblong to spherical 'brush' of filaments of 3 cm. The plants are substantial calcified. The filaments are slender, but because of the calcification rather tough. Slight magnification reveals their repeated dichotomous branching. The stalks appear spongy under magnification. They are slightly constricted at their base, where the bulbous mass of rhizoids arises. The color of the plants is light green.
The plant is coenocytic.

Habitat:
Common in shallow, warm bays and lagoons, where it may form large colonies or be mixed with sea grasses.

Distribution:
South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean.

Remarks:
The bristle ball brush, Penicillus dumetosus , is similar to P. capitatus , but the stalk is shorter and the head larger and looser. It is not so heavily


Penicillus dumetosus

 
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Peyssonnelia sp




Phormidium corallyticum (disease)




Peyssonneliacapensis-Kalkrotalge




Polysiphonia elongata




Description
Polysiphonia is a red alga, filamentous and usually well branched some plants reaching a length of about 30 cm. They are attached by rhizoids or haptera to a rocky surface or other alga. The thallus (tissue) consists of fine branched filaments each with a central axial filament supporting pericentral cells. The number of these pericentral cells, 4–24, is used in identification. Polysiphonia elongata [8] shows a central axial cell with 4 periaxial cells with cortical cells growing over the outside on the older fronds. [1] Its cuticle contains bromine.

Features used in identification include the number of pericentral cells, the cortication of main branches, constriction of young branches at their base, whether the branching dichotomous or spiral, and the width and length of thalli.


Porphyra leucosticta




Deep dark red rhodophyta; it has a very thin laminar thallus, exclusively lanceolate but not pointed; it is never branched. It has dimensions ranging from few centimetres up to 60 centimeters when it vegetates in eutrophicated waters in the lagoon channels. Its margin is sometimes whitish when the laver is fertile. It has cells which have a rayed pigmentation formation, called chromatophore, and in the centre a pyrenoid, another cytoplasm formation belonging to the plastids, the organelles involved in the photosynthesis. It is formed from a basal disc attached to the substrate, leaves are reddish-brown, ribbon-like, made up of one layer of cells.
Notes it has its maximum development at the end of winter and in spring. Asexual reproduction occurs by spores. In the life cycle the succession of two different generations occurs: the gametophyte, represented by the weed found on the solid substrata, and the sporophyte which is a microscopic filament.
Habitat it is almost always, if not even constantly epiphyte, on other weeds of the upper littoral level and therefore it bears rather well long uncovering due to syzygy low tides.
Food habits it is an autotrophous weed.
Status in the lagoon it is found in every sea and lagoon resorts and also in the resorts with waters purer than the sea such as in the historical town centres of Chioggia and Venice.



Predaea Gigartinales, Rhodophyta



Rhipocephalus phoenix





The Christmas tree plant (Rhipocephalus phoenix), is a calcified macroalgae that resembles members of the penicillus genus. It is also known as "Pine cone Algae". Growing to a size of about 4 inches, it will not be eaten by fish or snails, making it ideal as a display piece.
This algae is capable of living under low-moderate light, it will grow strongest in moderate to high lighting. We send Christmas tree macros approximately 3 inches tall. All macros present some risk of going sexual and releasing carbon dioxide into you aqaurium. However, the risk of adverse ph changes from the release of carbon from this species is extremely low. It should be planted into your substrate, a substrate greater than 3 inches deep would be ideal.



Rhizophora mangle



Very few true plants can survive in saltwater. The Red Mangrove is one of them. Red Mangroves can remove a large amount of Nitrate in your refugium, as well as chemical contaminants that come from your water or hands.
Because they do not "go sexual or respire" like macro algae, they present less risk to your systems ph balance, and have become popular recently with many aquarists. With proper trimming the plant can spend years in your refugium, larger plants will need an open top to grow out of. Many people are beginning to add the Red Mangrove to their display tank, as they want to mimic nature as closely as possible, while providing a habitat for their fish who will spend a large portion of time swimming in and out of the tree's roots. The Dwarf Planaxis Snail and the Cerith Snail love Mangroves, and will quickly burrow around the tree's root system. The three make an excellent combination in a refugium.

As a viviparous plant, the mangrove creates a propagule that is in reality a living tree. Through resembling an elongated seedpod, the fully-grown propagule on the mangrove is capable of rooting and producing a new tree. The trees are hermaphrodites, capable of self-pollinating or wind-pollinating. The tree undergoes no dormant stage as a seed, but rather progresses to a live plant before leaving its parent tree. A mangrove propagule may float in brackish water for over a year before rooting.
 
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Rhodopeltis sp





Rhodymenia holmesii




Description:
A diminutive red algae, flattened, V-shaped, somewhat cartilaginous, brown-red fronds, to 5 mm broad and to 100 mm high, with short stipes arising from a rhizoidal base. Fronds repeatedly dichotomously branched, axils narrow, apices elongate sometimes forming tendril-like extensions, margins smooth.

Habitat:
On rocks and in shady pools, lower intertidal and subtidal (to 8? m), south and west coasts of Britain and Ireland, common in Normandy, locally abundant in areas affected by sand or silt; occasionally on maërl in shallow subtidal. Frequently found in shaded crevices and niches.



Rhodymenia pseudopalmata




Description: Thallus erect to 10 cm long, fronds rising from a discoid holdfast, stipe terete expanding into a flat-shaped blade with marginal proliferations dividing diochotomously 1 to 4 times, each branch to 10 mm wide.

Habitat: Common, epilithic and epiphytic generally sublittoral to 30 m.

Distribution: Widespread in the British Isles generally on western shores of Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Wales and England. Europe: Portugal, Spain and France. Further afield: Canary Islands, the Azores and South Africa.

Similar Species: Other species of Rhodymenia, Phyllophora; Schottera nicaeensis and Stenogramme interrupta.

Sargassum fluitans




Completely safe for freshwater and marine aquariums, the Sargassum fluitans Saltwater Plant is attached to a weighted resin-rock base that closely resembles actual coral rock. You simply push it into the aquarium substrate to ensure "drift-free" positioning. Once place, they remain placed, their lush silky leaves gently moving to the natural rhythms of your aquarium. And SeaGarden plants require very little maintenance... just rinse under warm running water before installation and periodically for cleaning. Perfect for freshwater or marine aquariums.

SeaGarden aquarium decor is an extensive selection of synthetic plants that bring the beauty of the world's oceans to dazzling life in your aquarium. The result of painstaking research and careful design, these faithfully detailed, uniquely lifelike plants create a compelling underwater seascape. They transform any freshwater or marine aquarium into an incredibly beautiful natural-looking aquatic habitat... a true work of art.



Ascophyllum nodosum




Ascophyllum nodosum is a large, common, brown alga, in the Class Phaeophyceae. It is seaweed of the northern Atlantic Ocean, also known as Norwegian Kelp, Knotted Kelp, knotted wrack or egg wrack. It is common on the north-western coast of Europe (from Svalbard to Portugal) including east Greenland and the north-eastern coast of North America.

Ascophyllum is very popular amongst the science community and has been claimed to be both the best known seaweed on the planet as well as the most researched by the academic community.

Description
Ascophyllum nodosum has long fronds with large egg-shaped air-bladders set in series at regular intervals in the fronds and not stalked. The fronds can reach 2 m in length and are attached by a holdfast to rocks and boulders. The fronds are olive-brown in color and somewhat compressed but without a mid-rib.

Life history is of one diploid plant and gametes. The gametes are produced in conceptacles embedded in yellowish receptacles on short branches.


Varieties and forms
Several different varieties and forms of this species have been described.

Ascophyllum nodosum var. minor has been described from Larne Lough in Northern Ireland.
There are free floating ecads of this species such as Ascophyllum nodosum mackaii Cotton, which is found at very sheltered locations, such as at the heads of sea lochs in Scotland and Ireland.


Ecology
Ascophyllum nodosum is found mostly on sheltered sites on shores in the mid-littoral where it can become the dominant species in the littoral zone.

The species is found in a range of coastal habitats from sheltered estuaries to moderately exposed coasts, often it dominates the inter-tidal zone (although sub-tidal populations are known to exist in very clear waters). However it is rarely found on exposed shores, and if it is found the fronds are usually small and badly scratched. This seaweed grows quite slowly and can live for several decades; it may take approximately five years before becoming fertile.

Polysiphonia lanosa (L.) Tandy is a small red alga, commonly found growing in dense tufts on Ascophyllum whose rhizoids penetrate the host. It is considered by some as parasitic.


Distribution
Recorded in Europe from: Faroe Islands, Norway, Ireland, Britain and Isle of Man Netherlands North America: Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Baffin Island, Hudson Strait, Labrador and Newfoundland. It has been recorded as an accidental introduction to San Francisco, California, and eradicated as a potential invasive species there.


Uses
Ascophyllum nodosum is harvested for use in alginates, fertilisers and for the manufacture of seaweed meal for animal and human consumption. It has long been used as an organic and mainstream fertilizer for many varieties of crops due to its combination of both macronutrient, (eg. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) and micronutrients (eg. Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, etc). It also host to cytokinins, auxin-like, gibberellins, betaines, mannitol, organic acids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and proteins which are all very beneficial and widely used in agriculture.

Ireland, Scotland and Norway have provided the world's principal alginate supply.
Medical Uses
Ascophyllum nodosum may reduce, or even eliminate, not only bacterial plaque and dental caries but also arteriosclerotic plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, pleural plaque, renal calculus, biliary calculus, and prostatic calculus.

Furthermore, the medicinal and dental uses have been recognized for well over a century.
 
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Sargassum hystrix



Scientific Name: Sargassum sp. (hystrix)
Classification: Brown Algae

Description:
Sargassum is a brown to olive green colored macro algae of the brown algae family. It typically grows on live rock shortly after introduction into the reef tank. These pictures show specimens that have grown on Fiji live rock. The holdfasts are very strong fibrous affairs which sprout a growth of tough leaves. Large specimens eventually form air bladders which keep the fronds afloat. They do not typically get this large in the home reef tank.

Good or Bad?:
Sargassum is not as aggressive or as quick growing as Caulerpa, but it can grow into very dense mats that can shade adjacent corals. That, coupled with the fact that it is not a very attractive addition to the reef tank means it is generally eradicated from the main display tank. Growth that is not interfering with other specimens can be left alone if desired.



Sargassum natans





Sargassum natans Sargassum Weed
Common Name : Gulfweed
Family: Sargassaceae
Locality: Florida


This brown algae, which exists in vast floating masses in the Sargasso Sea of the north central Atlantic, is commonly found washed ashore on the beaches of northeast Florida following sustained easterly winds such as during northeasters and hurricanes. Although probably considered a smelly nuisance by most beach-goers, the floating mats serve as a source of food or home to a wide variety of sea life to include crabs, bryozoans, and nudibranchs. A careful examination of the beached algae will sometimes reveal some of these inhabitants still in residence.

The Sargasso Sea is a loosely defined geographic area bound by currents circulating as the North Atlantic Gyre, the Gulf Stream being the most noteworthy current occupying the western boundary. The Sargasso Sea is centered in a subtropical convergent zone where surface water slowly sinks, leaving the area nearly devoid of nutrients and thus nearly devoid of life—a biological desert of sorts. However, where the Sargasso Sea is poor in numbers it is rich in diversity, as well as a history that borders on the mythological. This area of the North Atlantic is home to two species of itinerant, floating seaweed, Sargassum fluitans and Sargassum natans. These plants were first described by Christopher Columbus as vast mats upon the ocean, so large he feared that his ships were about to run aground. A diverse assemblage of species lives on and among these “small islands” of seaweed, many of which are endemic to this relatively ephemeral environment. It is a unique environment and serves as a manageable microcosm in which SEA students have examined fundamental ecological concepts, including island biogeography, community succession, and trophic cascades.




Sargassum sinicola






Scinaia complanata




Name: Scinaia complanata
Popular name: None

Range: Tropical West Atlantic
Size: Usually 10cm (4 inches) tall

and juicy looking erect fronds up to 100 mm in height and 1 to 3 mm in diameter with a basal disc attachment. Branching is dichotomous and irregular (in many planes) and fronds rarely have constrictions. A multiaxial core is visible (but not usually in dried herbarium specimens). Plants are turgid when young becoming more floppy with age and are a dull red colour.

Other characterising features:
Plants are monecious with male plants bearing spermatangia 2 to 5 µm in diameter and formed in superficial clusters of variable size. cystocarps are spherical, 100 to 150 µm in diameter and sunk into the thallus, normally without a protruding pore.

Under a high powered microscope the cortex is composed of large colourless cells surrounded by clusters of smaller cells which appear to be densely pigmented.
Habitat
Cobbles and pebbles, with some tolerance of sediment scour. Lower shore and subtidal to 30 m
 
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S-complanata







S-johnstoni




Solieria chordalis





Solieria robusta




Stylopodium zonale



Stylopodium zonale, Leafy Flat-Blade Alga. Flat blades that are irregularly split and branched. Attached to hard substrates. Cancun, Mexico.


S-vulgare





Syringodium fildorme




Species Name:
Syringodium filiforme Kuetz.

Common Name:
Manatee Grass

Species Description:
A descriptive guide to the morphology, including keys and illustrations of plant and flower, occurrence, and global distribution of the 7 species of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule beaudettei (formerly H. wrightii), Syringodium filiforme, Ruppia maritima, Halophila engelmannii, Halophila decipiens and Halophila johnsonii) occurring in the Indian River Lagoon is presented by Eiseman (1980).

Synonymy:
Cymodocea manatorum Ascherson, Cymodocea filiformis (Kutzing) Correll.

Temperature:
Syringodium filiforme is considered a tropical species because it occurs throughout the Caribbean. However, because of its distribution in northern areas of Florida, it can be considered eurythermal. Leaf kill in Syringodium occurs when temperatures drop to approximately 20°C. The effect of cold water on rhizome growth is not known (Phillips 1960).

Salinity:
Syringodium filiforme is euryhaline. In the Tampa Bay region where salinity is usually under 25 ppt, Syringodium was found in dense stands and Thalassia was sparse. Phillips (1960) speculated that dense stands of Thalassia probably force Syringodium into lower salinity areas. In the Indian River Lagoon, S. filiforme formed dense beds in salinities of 22.0 - 35.0 ppt where Thalassia occurred only rarely (Phillips 1960).

Habitat:
Favorable substratum for Syringodium is very soft bottom, i.e., loose muddy sand; although Syringodium has been reported from a wide variety of substrata including the soft black mud near St. Lucie Inlet in the Indian River Lagoon, as well as in firm muddy sand composed mostly of sand (Phillips 1960).

Macrofauna:
Amphipods are capable of detecting differences in density of seagrasses and will choose areas of high blade density, presumably as a prey refuge. In addition, when 3 different species of seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme and Halodule beaudettei were offered to amphipods at equal blade density, amphipods chose H. wrightii because of its higher surface to biomass ratio (Stoner 1980).

Thalassia testudinum



Species Name:
Thalassia testudinum Banks & Soland. ex Koenig

Common Name:
Turtle Grass

Species Description:
Seven species of seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule beaudettei (formerly H. wrightii), Syringodium filiforme, Ruppia maritima, Halophila engelmannii, Halophila decipiens and Halophila johnsonii) occur in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. An illustrated key and guide to their morphology and distribution is presented by Eiseman (1980).

Growth and Light:
Growth of Thalassia testudinum, Halophila engelmannii, Ruppia maritima, Halodule beaudettei and Syringodium filiforme was investigated in the laboratory, at various light intensities. Optimum growth for all five species was obtained at light intensities of 200 - 450 foot-candles. At light intensities above or below this range, growth was much slower for all species (Koch et al 1974).

Temperature:
Temperature probably limits the northern distribution of Thalassia testudinum in Florida. In the Gulf of Mexico, T. testudinum is apparently capable of enduring a warm temperate climate; however, this is not the case along Florida's east coast where temperatures of 35.0 - 40.0 °C will kill the leaves of T. testudinum (Glynn 1968).

Salinity:
Thalassia testudinum does not tolerate extreme fluctuations in salinity and apparently will not tolerate fresh water. Moore (1963) speculated that salinities of 20 ppt or lower will have deleterious effects on turtle grass beds.

Habitat:
Various substrata have been reported to support stands of T. testudinum: e.g., hard packed to course, muddy sand; soft marl or mud; silt and clay-sized sediment; very fine, loose grayish calcium carbonate. Common to all these substrata was the presence of calcium carbonate with the substrata itself presenting anaerobic conditions (Phillips 1960).

The rhizome of Thalassia testudinum is usually buried from 2 to 4 inches in the substratum (Phillips 1960) but was also observed at 25 cm and more in Florida Bay (Ginsburg & Lowenstam 1958).
 
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Titanoderma pustulatum




Description: Encrusting, small attached as a disk up to 6mm diameter with free, often thickened, margins, surface smooth.

Habitat: Common. Epiphytic on Corallina officinalis or Furcellaria, overgrowing Melobesia. Common in rock pools of the lower littoral into the sublittoral to depths of 15m or more.

Distribution: Widespread around the British Isles from the Shetlands to the Channel Islands. Europe: Mediterranean, Azores, Portugal, Atlantic coasts of Spain and France, Baltic, Norway and the Faroes. Atlantic coast of North America: Canada, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Long Island. Further afield: Bahamas, Jamaica, the Canary Isles, Pacific U.S.A., India, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and West Africa.

Similar Species: Few encrusting corallines can easily be determined with confidence. Microscopic examination often required.


Turbinaria ornata





Description

Stiff, erect plant, 2 -20 cm tall when reproductive. Blades conical, hard, thick, with double row of stiff spines around the irregularly triangular margin of the blade when viewing from above. Holdfast bears one terete, erect portion and basal portion is conical or irregular, usually with several unbranched or dichotomously branched root-like structures growing from basal area of the erect axes. Mostly light yellowish brown to dark brown with dark brown spots.



Plant is usually isolated or in small groups, but occasionally forms large, low mats in high intertidal. Rhizoids common in upper intertidal.



Habitat

Very common. Found mid intertidal to at least 30 m deep. Grows in a variety of habitats including rocky intertidal, tide pools, intertidal benches, reef flats and deeper water.



Distribution

Hawai‘i: O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Lana‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i.

Mechanism of Introduction: Indigenous to Hawai‘i.

Worldwide: Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of central and western Pacific, Indian Ocean.



Ecology/Impact

Turbinaria ornata is a very common brown alga found intertidally on Hawaiian reefs and throughout the Pacific and Indian Ocean. It is normally found in small clusters attached to the crevices of basalt rocks in high wave action areas as well as in the crevices of coral heads at 20-30 meters deep. The morphological characteristics of this alga enable it to survive extreme environmental conditions. The alga’s tough thallus is able to withstand the high energy hydrodynamics of the intertidal environment as well as resist herbivory. The strong holdfast provides a stable grasp on the substrate and is capable of recolonization if the thallus are removed. The species has also exhibited seasonal changes. The thalli of T. ornata are often scoured from the holdfast in the winter season, and the remaining viable holdfast propagates new blades.



T. ornata successfully reproduces from either sexual reproduction or fragmentation. Fragments of the stolon and blade can attach to the substrate and initiate new plants.



T. ornata is considered an invasive elsewhere in the world where it often dominates subtidal and reef crest environments normally inhabited by Sargassum species. It is a potential invasive even in its native habitat in Hawai‘i. This species has shown very successful tendencies in areas near development with high nutrients and high water motion.
 
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Turbinaria turbinata




Description
Small dark brown plants usually less than 20 cm long. Tissues are differentiated into holdfast, stipes, fronds, fruiting bodies. Usually has a hard texture. Tend to form hard, fleshy, roughly conical masses of tissue at the apices of fronds.
Habitat
Attaches to coral, rocks and shells in shallow tropical reef flats in moderately exposed and sheltered areas. Often near Sargassum beds or mixed with genera such as Sargassum and Padina.

This is about Macroalgae bleaching/death. Its a good dicussion thread i found after some of mine where having this trouble. If you have any input on the phenomena please chime in.




WetWebMedia • View topic - Macro algae dying.



The intertidal zone of wave-swept rocky shores is one of the most physically stressful habitats on Earth. At low tide, marine organisms are faced with terrestrial conditions (e.g., heat and dessication stresses). At high tide, organisms are pummeled by breaking waves that can apply drag forces far greater than hurricane winds. I am particularly interested in intertidal seaweeds, which must survive these conditions wherever they settle and grow. (rollover image...)






Selective pressures that drive diversity
The morphological diversity of marine macroalgae is awe-inspiring. I am curious about the differential performance of seaweeds in flow and the selective pressures that shape modern diversity. Using re-circulating flumes, a high-speed water cannon, and various implements of algal torture, I compare drag and reconfiguration of intertidal fronds to forces required to break support tissues and predict hydrodynamic constraints on size, shape, and survival of seaweeds in the field.






Convergent evolution of articulated algae
One common feature of intertidal seaweeds is flexibility. By being flexible, algae "go with the flow," thereby reducing the drag on their thalli. This paradigm holds even for some calcified algae, which grow elaborate fronds by interspersing calcified segments with flexible joints. Articulated algae have evolved several times throughout evolutionary history - three times within the corallines alone. I have been studying the morphology, mechanical properties, development, and cell wall composition of joints (genicula) in coralline algae to explore their adaptation to hydrodynamic stress and the precision of their convergent evolution. I have found that genicular tissue is far stronger than other algal tissues and that basal genicula are morphologically well-adapted to resisting bending stresses, helping to explain how articulated corallines manage to dominate wave-swept coastlines around the world.






Early evolution of lignified cell walls
In our exploration of coralline genicula, we have discovered the presence of lignin and secondary cell walls, two features thought to have evolved when green algae took to land and, until now, had never been described in algae. Finding these characters in a red alga suggests that, contrary to the current paradigm, some of the biosynthetic pathways may have evolved in a common ancestor to reds and greens more than 1 billion years ago. We are in the process of searching for conserved genes using cDNA data. The cells that experience the greatest bending stresses under breaking waves contain the most lignin and the thickest secondary walls, suggesting some mechanically stimulated upregulation. However, the presence of lignin within calcified cellwalls suggests that the molecule may have originally evolved for some function other than mechanical support.






Biomaterials and cell wall mechanics
I am curious about the influence of cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure on the material properties of biological tissues. I have linked the strengthening of genicular tissue to an increase of cellulose within the cellwall, and data suggest that the addition of secondary walls stiffens genicular tissue and increases material toughness (i.e., energy to rupture). I plan to conduct serial chemical extractions on algal cellwalls to measure the contribution of individual cell wall constituents to mechanical performance, and plan to use birefringence techniques to link stress-strain curves to the reorientation of cellulose microfibrils within red algal cellwalls.






Bleaching and consequences of climate change
Coralline algae are central components of marine ecosystems. They cement coral reefs together, form habitat for other plants and animals, and produce cues to stimulate settlement of many invertebrates. Loss of coralline algae would likely have cascading effects throughout marine communities. I am interested in the effects of climate change (e.g., pH decline, temperature increase) on coralline algal growth and physiology. Intertidal coralline algae are susceptible to "bleaching" when the tide is out and the weather is hot and sunny. Data suggest that temperature, dessication, and light intensity can all induce bleaching, but they are particularly harmful when combined. These data can be used in climate models to predict hypothetical impacts on coralline populations and on the communities that depend upon them.






Life history strategies in the intertidal zone
The wave-swept intertidal zone is a stressful place to live. Algae are often ripped from the substratum by crashing waves. I've demonstrated that articulated coralline fronds can persist for months after being separated from their crustose base and, if conditions are right, the meristems of severed fronds can re-attach to the substratum and grow new upright fronds. Thus, breakage may not always be bad. Another physical constraint is space; with limited open space for spores to settle, many algae epiphytize other seaweeds. Data on epiphytized algae suggest that such a relationship often spells disaster for the host, as both plants grow and drag on the system increases. What is the reproductive cost incurred by coralline hosts, as fleshy epiphytes grow quickly, reproduce, and cause the pair to break? Do epiphytes gain some mechanical advantage from growing on other plants?






Patrick T. Martone

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia

3529-6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 CANADA

Rm 2220, Biological Sciences Building

604-822-9338 (office), 604-822-9413 (lab)

pmartone(at)interchange.ubc.ca


Exemple of Crashing Caulerpa and what to do.



I woke up to a Baseball+-Sized colony of Grape Caulerpa dying and releasing
spores. I managed to remove the plant and do a 10% water change before
having to leave for work. I`m only going to leave partial lighting on for
the rest of the day.

I would appreciate any experienced suggestions as to what my follow-up plan
should be. I cant get back home for 8-10 hours. But I can read posts during
the day should I need to pick anything up at the LFS on my way back from
work.

It's usually not a problem. The water usually clears
up quickly, and everything is fine. You can keep it
from crashing by regular pruning. Stress can also
make it crash.

It has to get pretty cold to crash it. I'm not sure
of the exact temperature. I've done a little growing
outside. But the temperature at which it will
crash, is around 50 to 60 degrees.

Also growing too thick adds to stress, because it
blocks the light to the lower branches, when the
lower branches crash the whole thing crashes because
it's all one single cell.

Wayne Sallee
Wayne's Pets
 
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I found a nice article , Simple and covers everything for a healthy algae tank.


The Aquarium Refugium Biotope.
Written by Peter Cunningham · Filed Under Aquarium Filtration


A refugium (or a fuge as they are commonly known) is a small aquarium which either sits next to, hangs upon, is below the aquarium or is above the existing aquarium or is completly independant. A refugium is normally a mixture of a deep sand bed or a mud bed combined with macro algae, however a refugium can also easily be made using a shallow sand bed and macro algae. If a substrate is provided that the macro algae can grow in then a refugium can be made.

A refugium is similar to that of the sea grass beds which are used in nature albeit on a smaller scale.

In an aquarium refugium biotope any detritus which enters the aquarium will settle down onto the sand/mud bed and be processed. In the substrate various organisms will live, reproduce and consume - as with a deep sand bed, plenum etc you will need to introduce these creatures into this area, this can be from some pieces of live rock, some sand from another sand bed or from some grunge from your local fish shops curing vats.

With there being no fish in the refugium there is no predation (except perhaps among the micro organisms), therefore all of these organisms have the ability to reproduce and multiply, enabling you the aquarist to have a natural food source for your aquarium. Macro algae is grown in the refugium and extracts nutrients from the water passing through it. The addition of the macro algae reduces nitrates and phosphates for example and enables a low level of these nutrients.

Normally lighting is applied to the refugium on an opposite cycle to the display aquarium lighting. This is also beneficial as oxygen is provided during the night time hours therefore stabilising any pH fluctuations which can otherwise occur. As with other algae based systems it is better to light the aquarium with lighting which is designed to maintain and support plant life. Lighting which is in the range of 6000 kelvin will be more than sufficient as lighting at this level produces a lot of red and yellow which plant life like.

A refugium is quite simple to add to the aquarium system. It can either be installed directly in the sump if a partition is provided or next to/above the main display aquarium. The benefit of housing the refugium next to or above the display aquarium is that some of the various organisms which live within the refugium will overflow with the water back to the main display aquarium. Sometimes this is not always possible though and a lot of aquarists build a refugium in or next to the sump. The only disadvantage of this is that any organisms which overflow into the sump will probably be destroyed by the return pump to the display aquarium.

When adding macro algae to the refugium attempt to add a few different varieties as all may not thrive, therefore if you add more than one variety at least one will grow. Periodically you will need to harvest or trim back the macro algae. Harvesting the macro algae will encourage new shoots to grow and prevent any macro algae from crashing or dying. When macro algae dies all the nutrients which it has consumed are released back into the aquarium which is obviously something which we do not want to happen. When harvesting the macro algae do not be tempted to feed it to any green loving fish as this will only add the nutrients back into the water using a different method.

You do not need to grow macro algae in a refugium - there are some aquarists who design a system which is purely for the different types of life which can be kept. If you do not decide to use macro algae then ensure that you provide some places for these creatures to hide, some pieces of live rock will suffice.




There's another about Mud base filtration system; what do think of it.....



http://www.aquaristsonline.com/blog/...um-filtration/

Udotea petiolata





Udotea Petiolata (Udoteaceae)
Like the above, the udotea prefers poorly lit settings and grows on sand or rocks. Size: 3-20 cm.
Mrewha tal-Bahar 3-10cm. Fan-shaped with dark green fringe. Lives on rocks and other seaweed in shallow to fairly deep water; also in Posidonia meadows. Common.



Udotea sp




If you are looking for a type of plant to place in your saltwater tank there are quite a few different types of plants to choose from. You can purchase plants, but some types of saltwater fish are herbivores and they will eat the plants. You will want to make sure that your fish will not eat the plants before you spend the money purchasing them. The Mermaid's Fan Plant looks like one big, thick leaf. It looks nice in the saltwater aquarium and helps to make your saltwater fish tank more real and ocean like. The plant is somewhat difficult to take care of and is not really recommended for a beginner. You will want have some sort of experience with saltwater fish tanks before you purchase this plant for your aquarium.

This plant also needs a somewhat decent lighting system. You cannot have a regular light from a freshwater tank and expect it to be good enough to keep the Mermaid's Fan plant alive. You will want to have a saltwater light on your fish tank in order to keep the plant healthy. The plant is going to be on the bottom of the fish tank so it wont get a whole lot of light but this is good enough for this plant. It's only certain types of soft and hard coral that need a lot of light. You will want to save the top portion of your tank for the corals that need the most light.

This plant is just like some other types of coral. You will need to add supplements to keep the Mermaid's Fan Plant alive. You are going to have to purchase Iodine, Trace Elements and Iron. You can purchase these bottles from any local pet store which sells saltwater fish. The bottle will usually cost you around $6 and it will usually last you a couple of months depending on the size of your saltwater tank.



Udotea spinulosa


Ulva lactuca





Ulva lactuca is a thin flat green alga growing from a discoid holdfast. The margin is somewhat ruffled and often torn. It may reach 18 cm or more in length, though generally much less, and up to 30 cm across. The membrane is two cells thick, soft and translucent.and grows attached, without a stipe, to rock by a small disc-shaped holdfast. Green to dark green in color this species in the Chlorophyta is formed of two layers of cells irregularly arranged, as seen in cross section. The chloroplast is cup-shaped with 1 to 3 pyrenoids. There are other species of Ulva which are similar and not always easy to differentiate.


Distribution
The distribution is worldwide: Europe, North America - west and east coasts, Central America, Caribbean Islands, South America, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, South-west Asia, China, Pacific Islands, Australia[1], and New Zealand.


Ecology
Ulva lactuca is very common on rocks and on other algae in the littoral and sublittoral on shores all around the British Isles. It is particularly prolific in areas where nutrients are abundant
 
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Valonia macrophysa




To the reef aquarium hobbyist, one of the rudest of surprises is to be confronted with an aggressive outbreak of 'bubble algae' in the tank. In the right conditions, they multiply and spread rapidly, offering good resistance to many herbivores, while threatening to smother many sessile ornamental organisms in the tank.

When we hear of 'bubble algae', one reflex is to think of the infamous "Valonia ventricosa", without even considering the many other algae that form bubble-like structures. Premature judgment can be regrettable, but there is this added twist: the much-cited 'Valonia' of our nightmares is no longer Valonia, but, thanks to Olsen & West (1988) now has its own Genus, Ventricaria.


That deft taxonomic adjustment aside, there still should be no bar to our tentatively identifying the bubbles of our troubles. Proper identification can lead to a more accurate perception in the hobby of which algae are common problems, rare nuisances, or even benevolent guests. In some cases proper identification can tell us how to best combat a problem alga. With some bias towards species found in my corner of the world (the Philippine Islands) I have selected some 'bubble algae' for description, and hopefully, differentiation.

'Bubble' Alage: Selected Descriptions, Controls and Comments by Horge Cortes-Jorge, Jr. - Reefkeeping.com


Valonia aegagropila





Valonia utricularis





Valoniop sispachynema







Ventricaria ventricosa




Scientific Name: Valonia sp.
Classification: Algae
Common Names: Bubble Algae
Description:
Bubble algae is pretty easy to recognize. As can be seen to the right, bubble algae forms green bubbles on a hard surface like live rock. The bubbles can be masses of small irregular bubbles, or can be single or small groups of larger rounded bubbles up to over an inch in diameter. The surface of the bubble can be smooth or rough depending on the particular species.

Good or Bad?:
Bubble algae is BAD. After the initial excitement of finding cool looking green pearls in your tank, you should remove the bubbles to keep it in check. Bubble algae grows rapidly and can spread through the tank. It will tend to crowd desirable specimens out. Fortunately, it is normally possible to manually extract bubble algae and keep it under control unlike hair algae.

Notes:
Bubble algae can be picked off by hand. It is unclear if breaking the bubbles can help spread the pest or not, but should probably be avoided. On small rocks, it is sometimes easier to remove the rock in order to pick off the pests.

Some types of Mithrax crabs are reputed to eat Bubble algae, but the jury is still out on that one. While I have observed them eating bubble algae, they do not appear to be a complete method of control. There is also evidence that Red Sea Sailfin or Naso tangs may eat the stuff.


Wrangelia argus





Rhodophyta Florideophyceae Ceramiales Ceramiaceae Wrangelia argus
Habitat
Frequently on rocky substrata, or epiphytic on coarser plants, to 10 m depth. In the region of Bocas del Toro, Panama, the species was found epiphytic on macroalgae, intertidal to 2 m depth
Distribution
Atlantic Islands, throughout the Americas, Caribbean Islands, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Indian Ocean Islands, Southwest Asia, Asia Pacific Islands.
Characteristics
Thallus forming iridescent, purple-red fuzzy turfs (1.5 cm high); branching irregular. Main filaments cylindrical (to 400 μm diam.). Branchlets soft, thin, arranged in whorls at joints. Tetrasporangia spherical (60 μm diam.), surrounded by short, incurved involucral filaments
 
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Zostera noltii



Synonyms: Zostera nana Roth.

Common names: Rom: Iarba de mare; Russ: Vzmornik maliy; Turk: Ince deniz otu.

Order (Scientific): HELOBIALES.

Family (Scientific): POTAMOGETONACEAE.

Taxonomic description: Thin, branched rhizome stem 10-40 cm long. Narrow linear leaves, 5-20 (30) cm long, 0.5-2 mm broad, having 1-3 main nerves and 3-4 secondary nerves and emarginate point. Non-thickened peduncle under the sheat. Ear 1.5 cm long, having (3) 6-12 flowers. Ripe fruit completely smooth - VI-VIII.



Distribution:

Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Rocky and sandy bottoms of sea and littoral lakes. Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea, Caspian Sea, Karacum. Species belonging to arctic-northern area. Increasing turbidity; human exploitation (by fishermen).

Biology: Besides the utilization mentioned for the previous species, it is used as a substitute for artificial wool. It contains 14% proteins and 2.1% fats and can be used as food for swine.

Population trends: On the Romanian littoral, on the sandy-muddy bottoms in the Mamaia-Midia, Agigea and Mangalia zones, there were belts of this phanerogam till 1975-1980. Severe reduction after the hydrotechnical works for harbour building.

Threats: Exploitation, increasing turbidity causing diminution of light penetration.
 
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enjoy....... feel free to post.....;)
 
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Bump for the night crowd.... Where's my boy Kris "alpha corals" he would like this thread....
Sorry about some images not showing up either not sure what the deal is...:(
 
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