Sulphur media

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Sallstrom

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Okey, now I've been looking through old log files from 2013 to find some notes on a sulphur filter :)
We put up a large DIY sulphur filter on a cold water system. Had the water in to the filter go through a DIY heat exchanger to get it up to 20-24 degrees, to speed up the bacterial growth.
Here are our notes. Water out from the filter:
LS - svavelfilter pH mm 2013.JPG


The pH is not totally correct. We didn't start with that high pH I think :) But you can see the drop in pH and approximately how much it decreased after the filter. I found notes from another sulphur filter we had, showing a pH at 6,8-7 in the water out.

I didn't find that much on how much the KH increased after the coral gravel after the filter. That was with another filter, a couple of years later. But the reason we removed the coral gravel was that calcium got too high.
 

Belgian Anthias

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Ive been wanting to start a sulphur denitrator or bades reactor, my main concerns or problems are I cannot find pelletized elemental sulphur locally and i hate waiting for a shipment of ultra over priced sulphur when its a byproduct of gas and diesel. Being in Alberta Canada, oil and gas is the thing. We got a few storage sites for sulphur around alberta but they are far and dont answer email or phone. Snobs lol.

My other concern is alkalinity dropping from sulphur bacterial processes and will this scary bright yellow media raise sulphur in my aquarium? Anything to worry about?

My nitrates are 150 ppm and up now. Nothing looks bad or hurt but coral isn't growing like it should. It grows, but cery slowly. My fish get fed normally but a panther grouper, emperor angel, couple of tangs, and a big orange spot rabbitfish all eat lots. I feed the panther grouper a shrimp from the supermarket which i believe is causeing no3 to raise.
Sulfur is used in greenhouses. Most suppliers of horticulturists or wineries have elemental sulphur in their assortment.


Total Sysem Alkalinity is not a concern if BADES is used correctly.
Elemental sulphur does not dissolve in seawater. The sulphur is consumed by bacteria using it which may lead to very small particles that may spread if nothing is done to hold them. Sulfate is produced wich may influence the total sulfate content, but this is not considered a problem.
All possible side effects of BADES.

BADES is used in combination with calcium carbonate, as a substrate for the growing biofilm or, if BADES only is used as a denitrator, calcium carbonate media ca be used in a separate reactor, this for big systems. If the biofilm grows on a substrate mix of calcium and sulfur the produced acids, produced by autotrophic processes, will dissolve the calcium carbonate media and the biofilm will use the released carbonate as the carbon source for the autotrophic processes, this within the biofilm, within the refuge, biofilter or reactor. This means if BADES is used correctly, the effect on Total System Alkalinity is minimal. Depending on the removal rate, bicarbonate may be produced. ( Zhang2004) ref:https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/doku.php?id=nl:makazi:het_water:slad_systeem If BADES is used for growing a nitrifying biofilm also the nitrification process will have little or no influence on Total System Alkalinity. Calcium is produced, also minerals, and all building materials present in the provided calcium carbonate substrate. ref: https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/do...hemie:biofilm#kalk_als_drager_voor_de_biofilm

You have two options using BADES, lowering the level very fast using a BADES reactor or do it slowly by removing daily a bit more nitrate-nitrogen as produced daily, using a BADES biofilm reactor. What you need to know to start using BADES is the daily nitrate overproduction, the average daily increase of the nitrate level. And what will be the desired nitrate level to maintain? To maintain the nitrate level as desired, the reactor must be big enough to handle the flow needed to remove the daily nitrate overproduction once the desired level is reached. As fish grow and organisms multiply the biofilter must be able to grow with the system.

I do not advise the use of a so-called "sulphur denitrator", which is kept anoxic by strictly limiting the flow. But it will lower the high nitrate level to a certain point if used correctly.
All the above does not count for a "sulphur denitrator". In an anoxic kept reactor in wich 0 nitrate in the effluent is targetted processes inside the reactor can not easily be controlled and a lot of nitrate may be removed using HS produced by sulphate reduction instead by using elemental sulphur.

ref: https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/doku.php?id=nl:badess:start
 
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Belgian Anthias

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Hey ive been reading a lot of your posts about bades lately and they are interesting. Is it true this system doesnt need a low oxygen environment to remove nitrates?

Can you say how to buid one? Is it essentially the same as a sulfur denitrator except the flow rate is faster?

My understanding is that normal nitrogen cycle bacteria grow on the surface of sulfur beads consuming oxygen, but underneath the beads, sulfur bacteria get a low oxygen zone and remove nitrates because of the bacterial film above it. Correct?

After reading more about bades, it seems that a disolved oxygen of 3ppm or less is required passing over the sulphur media to permit the biological process to work. How do you know you have 3ppm oxygen or less?
Any seawater resistant recipient with a lid can be used as a reactor as such a system is not pressurized, a little circulating pump on the lowest point for creating a Moving Bed Reactor. Using a BADES biofilm reactor a separate circulation pump is not needed because the flow will be high enough to create enough circulation. For a BADESS a reactor is not needed, a simple refuge will do.

+- Correct!
In every nitrifying biofilm denitrification takes place. On the outer layers mainly heterotrophs are active using up a lot of oxygen, producing ammonia, CO2, phosphate, and anything else, left over after remineralization. Nitrifiers do not like light and are mainly found in the second layers using up a lot more oxygen transforming ammonium into nitrite and nitrate. This creates Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ), suitable for autotrophic anaerobic activities, and anoxic zones where also anaerobic heterotrophic remineralization can take place ( denitrification and sulfate reduction). produced HS is then used by sulphur bacteria, producing S or sulfate, depending of the nitrate availability. This way a normal nitrifying biofilm growing on shell grit may export +- 16% of the processed nitrogen. Without doing a thing, just by providing space and substrate, using a refuge as a biofilter. By adding element sulfur to the substrate the anaerobic autotrophic denitrification capacity taking place in OMZ zones may increase as sulfur is no longer limited available. This way a normal nitrifying biofilm may export a lot more nitrogen. ref: https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/do...e:biofilm#de_mixotrofe_nitrificerende_biofilm

In a reactor one may influence the different processes, nitrification and denitrification, by managing the flow, the oxygen consumption and availability. Hignette published that autotrophic denitrification still takes place having a DO of 3ppm. He did NOT say DO must be less as 3 PPM. but it is good to know anoxic conditions in the reactor water are not needed. This line of thinking had lead to anoxic reactors as it was published the BADES process worked best in anoxic conditions. But why removing 100% of nothing? BADES works fine in normal aquarium conditions using BADES rolls,
 
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Any seawater resistant recipient with a lid can be used as a reactor as such a system is not pressurized, a little circulating pump on the lowest point for creating a Moving Bed Reactor. Using a BADES biofilm reactor a separate circulation pump is not needed because the flow will be high enough to create enough circulation. For a BADESS a reactor is not needed, a simple refuge will do.

+- Correct!
In every nitrifying biofilm denitrification takes place. On the outer layers mainly heterotrophs are active using up a lot of oxygen, producing ammonia, CO2, phosphate, and anything else, left over after remineralization. Nitrifiers do not like light and are mainly found in the second layers using up a lot more oxygen transforming ammonium into nitrite and nitrate. This creates Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ), suitable for autotrophic anaerobic activities, and anoxic zones where also anaerobic heterotrophic remineralization can take place ( denitrification and sulfate reduction). produced HS is then used by sulphur bacteria, producing S or sulfate, depending of the nitrate availability. This way a normal nitrifying biofilm growing on shell grit may export +- 16% of the processed nitrogen. Without doing a thing, just by providing space and substrate, using a refuge as a biofilter. By adding element sulfur to the substrate the anaerobic autotrophic denitrification capacity taking place in OMZ zones may increase as sulfur is no longer limited available. This way a normal nitrifying biofilm may export a lot more nitrogen. ref: https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/do...e:biofilm#de_mixotrofe_nitrificerende_biofilm

In a reactor one may influence the different processes, nitrification and denitrification, by managing the flow, the oxygen consumption and availability. Hignette published that autotrophic denitrification still takes place having a DO of 3ppm. He did NOT say DO must be less as 3 PPM. but it is good to know anoxic conditions in the reactor water are not needed. This line of thinking had lead to anoxic reactors as it was published the BADES process worked best in anoxic conditions. But why removing 100% of nothing? BADES works fine in normal aquarium conditions using BADES rolls,
Hey i have a 125 gallon approximate system. Its bare bottom. Nitrates are 150ppm and up. I dont know how much daily nitrates it produces but I can tell you how much I feed daily. I feed a finger pinch of flake food, 20 algae pellets 2mm in size, 2 algae wafers, and nori algae 2 inches by 6 inches. Sometimes I feed a jumbo supermarket shrimp to my panther grouper, usually every 3 days or so.

I have ordered 2000 grams of sulphur pellets. I have this reactor:
Screenshot_20200703-022751_Samsung Internet.jpg


How fast should the flow through it be at start up? How much sulphur media do I need?
 

Belgian Anthias

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Hey i have a 125 gallon approximate system. Its bare bottom. Nitrates are 150ppm and up. I dont know how much daily nitrates it produces but I can tell you how much I feed daily. I feed a finger pinch of flake food, 20 algae pellets 2mm in size, 2 algae wafers, and nori algae 2 inches by 6 inches. Sometimes I feed a jumbo supermarket shrimp to my panther grouper, usually every 3 days or so.

I have ordered 2000 grams of sulphur pellets. I have this reactor:
Screenshot_20200703-022751_Samsung Internet.jpg


How fast should the flow through it be at start up? How much sulphur media do I need?
Having 150ppm you need at least 2% sulphur + calcium which is > 10liters sulphur if you want to target 0 nitrates in the effluent. As autotrophic denitrification does not produce much bio-mass not much phosphate is needed but for removing 150ppm in one passage enough phosphate must be available in the reactor, which may be estimated +- 0.02 ppm phosphate is needed to remove +- 50ppm nitrate. Phosphate availability often may become the limiting factor for removing high nitrate levels using a "sulfur denitrator" which may lead to mismanagement if not anticipated. Mixing the sulfur with shell grit prevents phosphate may become the limiting factor.
Using a BADES reactor you will need at least 1% sulphur + 1% calciumcarbonate media, a reactor of at least >10 liters, this if 0 nitrate in the effluent is NOT a target. I would use a 15l container, or consider two containers.
One can condition a BADES system two different ways, following the MAAO method, limited flow and increase when all nitrite is removed or following the BADES biofilm method by which the reactor is conditioned as a normal biofilter and when conditioned the flow is slowly decreased until less nitrate is measured in the effluent as present in the influent. This means all nitrate produced by nitrification in the reactor is removed, which will lower the nitrate level in the system due to normal consumption. The nitrogen export rate can be managed by managing the flow.
A BADES bio reactor is always followed by an aeration device as the effluent water DO may become as low as 2PPM DO, also to stabilize pH and to complete any uncompleted reactions. As the effluent still contains oxygen there is no risk for having problems which may be linked to the use of a "sulphur denitrator"



Trying to remove 150ppm nitrate with only 2000 gr sulphur will lead to a very low flow rate if 0 nitrate in the effluent is a target and is asking for troubles.
The reactor is too small for a good BADESS. This does not mean the reactor can not be used to lower the nitrate level as at this high level, not much daily flow is needed to remove the daily nitrate overproduction. But this will change once the level is descending fast.

Maybe a big water change must be considered to lower the nitrate level before starting using BADES, this if pH is not very low at the moment. In that case pH first must slowly be increased. Systems without a biofilter and a high ammonia and nitrate production often have a low pH.

The average daily nitrate overproduction can be determined by taking a sample just before lights on and again a week later at the same moment.

All info about BADES and BADESS is available in the Makazi Baharini wiki, believe it or not, in the section BADESS. Articles are originally in Dutch, some are translated to English,but most references used are consultable and in English. We stopped to translate articles to another language. Google translate is just one click away.

I hope you will find an answer to all your questions.
 
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Having 150ppm you need at least 2% sulphur + calcium which is > 10liters sulphur if you want to target 0 nitrates in the effluent. As autotrophic denitrification does not produce much bio-mass not much phosphate is needed but for removing 150ppm in one passage enough phosphate must be available in the reactor, which may be estimated +- 0.02 ppm phosphate is needed to remove +- 50ppm nitrate. Phosphate availability often may become the limiting factor for removing high nitrate levels using a "sulfur denitrator" which may lead to mismanagement if not anticipated. Mixing the sulfur with shell grit prevents phosphate may become the limiting factor.
Using a BADES reactor you will need at least 1% sulphur + 1% calciumcarbonate media, a reactor of at least >10 liters, this if 0 nitrate in the effluent is NOT a target. I would use a 15l container, or consider two containers.
One can condition a BADES system two different ways, following the MAAO method, limited flow and increase when all nitrite is removed or following the BADES biofilm method by which the reactor is conditioned as a normal biofilter and when conditioned the flow is slowly decreased until less nitrate is measured in the effluent as present in the influent. This means all nitrate produced by nitrification in the reactor is removed, which will lower the nitrate level in the system due to normal consumption. The nitrogen export rate can be managed by managing the flow.
A BADES bio reactor is always followed by an aeration device as the effluent water DO may become as low as 2PPM DO, also to stabilize pH and to complete any uncompleted reactions. As the effluent still contains oxygen there is no risk for having problems which may be linked to the use of a "sulphur denitrator"



Trying to remove 150ppm nitrate with only 2000 gr sulphur will lead to a very low flow rate if 0 nitrate in the effluent is a target and is asking for troubles.
The reactor is too small for a good BADESS. This does not mean the reactor can not be used to lower the nitrate level as at this high level, not much daily flow is needed to remove the daily nitrate overproduction. But this will change once the level is descending fast.

Maybe a big water change must be considered to lower the nitrate level before starting using BADES, this if pH is not very low at the moment. In that case pH first must slowly be increased. Systems without a biofilter and a high ammonia and nitrate production often have a low pH.

The average daily nitrate overproduction can be determined by taking a sample just before lights on and again a week later at the same moment.

All info about BADES and BADESS is available in the Makazi Baharini wiki, believe it or not, in the section BADESS. Articles are originally in Dutch, some are translated to English,but most references used are consultable and in English. We stopped to translate articles to another language. Google translate is just one click away.

I hope you will find an answer to all your questions.
My mistake, i have 5 kgs of sulphur media coming, not 2 kgs. Will that be enough?

The container I have holds approximately 3.2 liters of water (i measured). Maybe i should connect two more to make 9 liters of space for sulphur? Im not sure how to convert 10 liters of sulphur beads to Kgs.

Ph in my system is 8.1 usually.
 

Randy Holmes-Farley

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Trying to remove 150ppm nitrate with only 2000 gr sulphur will lead to a very low flow rate if 0 nitrate in the effluent is a target and is asking for troubles.
The reactor is too small for a good BADESS. This does not mean the reactor can not be used to lower the nitrate level as at this high level, not much daily flow is needed to remove the daily nitrate overproduction. But this will change once the level is descending fast.
Why can't he just wait longer?

Ten liters of media seems ridiculous, IMO.
 

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Im not sure how to convert 10 liters of sulphur beads to Kgs
Density - around 2 g/cm3; 1000 g = 1 Kg -> 2000 g = 2 Kg ; 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3 = 1 L . All this together will be around 2 Kg/L - this is the beauty of the decimal system Trudeau introduce in Canada back in the 70:ties :p

Sincerely Lasse
 

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There are a couple of semi-active sulfur denitrator threads in the equipment forum. I’ve been running one for a while now and have had excellent results. Dropped nitrates in my 600 gallon system from 80 ish down to unmeasurable. I did have to supplement alkalinity. Sulfur depletes very slowly.
 
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Why can't he just wait longer?

Ten liters of media seems ridiculous, IMO.
I think 10 liters is reccomend for a flow rate aerobic reactor, not a slow flow anerobic version. But Beligian anthias should answer this. I agree its a lot!
 
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Density - around 2 g/cm3; 1000 g = 1 Kg -> 2000 g = 2 Kg ; 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3 = 1 L . All this together will be around 2 Kg/L - this is the beauty of the decimal system Trudeau introduce in Canada back in the 70:ties :p

Sincerely Lasse
Thanks so for 5kgs if media ill be at almost a 3liter container which i have.
 
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There are a couple of semi-active sulfur denitrator threads in the equipment forum. I’ve been running one for a while now and have had excellent results. Dropped nitrates in my 600 gallon system from 80 ish down to unmeasurable. I did have to supplement alkalinity. Sulfur depletes very slowly.
Ill look into them. Got any links?
 

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Why can't he just wait longer?

Ten liters of media seems ridiculous, IMO.
Since you clearly disagree with my advice, obviously you know it better? Please explain why it is rediculous, not to me , for the benefit of future BADES users !
How much sulphur would you recommend for exporting 150 ppm nitrate , bring the level to 1ppm NO3-N and keep that level steady, removing daily the daily nitrogen overproduction considered not needed. Maby by using a so called "sulphur reactor"?
So, I leave it to you!
 
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So according to lasse's calculations id need 20 kgs of sulphur beads to fill 10 liters of space. Is this what id need for a BADES system?

The purpose of this is so i can clean the whole 125 gallons daily. Correct?
 

Belgian Anthias

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Removing nitrate is never an emergency! Methods used to lower the nitrate level may cause more harm as the nitrate level ever will.
Why the level increase? Does the phosphate level follow?

To avoid the risk for mismanagement a BADES reactor must be big enough. Also a so-called " sulphur denitrator"
When using a BADES biofilm reactor only a bit more as the daily nitrate overproduction must be removed daily, which makes it possible to lower the nitrate level slowly, the effluent will still contain nitrate and oxygen.
One may use sulphur for exporting nitrate, or and to lower the nitrate level or and for controlling the nitrogen content.
A BADESS is used for controlling the nitrogen content.
Exporting nitrate can be done using any volume of sulphur. To lower the nitrate level one needs a minimal amount of sulphur. For decreasing a high nitrate level to the desired level and keep it there, controlling the nitrate level at the desired level, one needs a reactor that is big enough. It is a choice to make.

A reactor must be big enough to handle the flow needed. The system water contains +- 6ppm oxygen, it makes a big difference having 150ppm nitrate or 4ppm nitrate in the water for exporting the same daily nitrogen overproduction.

All info and propper research about using elemental sulhur for exporting nitrogen is made available in the Makazi Baharini wiki, section BADESS. All basic information and a lot more are available. To use the links in the wiki one has to register.

About sulphur, there is a big difference in weight between bio-sulphur and normal sulphur. ref; https://www.baharini.eu/baharini/doku.php?id=en:makazi:chemie:zwavel

Please learn the basics! A sulphur denitrator should not be managed as it was a carbon-based denitrator, which is kept anoxic, meanly used as a batch reactor. Please use and read the provided links and references.

BADES is not my preferred nutrient management method but it is my opinion the best method for only exporting nitrogen. One does not need a reactor for using BADES.
 

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So according to lasse's calculations id need 20 kgs of sulphur beads to fill 10 liters of space. Is this what id need for a BADES system?

The purpose of this is so i can clean the whole 125 gallons daily. Correct?
If you do not target 0 nitrate in the effluent 5 liter sulphur and 5 liter shell grit will do. If targetting 0 nitrate in the effluent the guideline is at least the double for 150ppm. See MAAO
If you had read my references and links you would have had all the info needed about sulfur. I make use of sulfur grains of 1330grams/liter.
For a BADES reactor the minimal quantity of sulfur needed can be determined using the daily nitrogen overproduction to remove daily as a reference and targetting 0 nitrate effluent. All info needed is available in our wiki.
Following the basic guidelines, you will be able to remove more like the daily nitrogen overproduction daily until the desired nitrogen level is reached, depending on the daily nitrogen overproduction. That is why it is advised to determine the average daily nitrate overproduction before starting using BADES. As this info is not available the advice is based on the quantity of sulfur used in a MAAO system, which is based on the nitrate level, but also has proven the past decades to handle a daily flow of 2x the system content daily targetting 0 nitrate in the effluent. You must be aware of, for lowering the level from 8ppm to 4 ppm while removing the same daily overproduction daily, using a BADES reactor, the flow must be doubled, entering twice as much oxygen. From 4ppm to 2 ppm again the flow must be doubled. The reactor must be big enough.
The volume advised is enough to lower the level and increase the flow accordingly, avoiding the critical point where the reactor can not lower the level anymore, often seen using a " sulphur denitrator".
Starting up a BADES biofilm reactor as a normal bio, having no idea about the daily nitrogen overproduction, the minimum volume recommended = (1% +1%) x 1.2 .
 

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Since you clearly disagree with my advice, obviously you know it better? Please explain why it is rediculous, not to me , for the benefit of future BADES users !
How much sulphur would you recommend for exporting 150 ppm nitrate , bring the level to 1ppm NO3-N and keep that level steady, removing daily the daily nitrogen overproduction considered not needed. Maby by using a so called "sulphur reactor"?
So, I leave it to you!
I think you misunderstand.
I asked why he cannot wait longer. Simple question, not an opinion. Would a 2 L reactor get there, but just take longer?

What I did state is my opinion that think it is ridiculous to use a system where 10 liters may be required. I have no idea if that much is needed or not, But, IMO, I would never use a denitrator that required me to set up a 10 L a reactor. That just takes up too much real estate unless you have a dedicated fish room separate from the aquarium.
 

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If you had read my references and links you would have had all the info needed about sulfur. I make use of sulfur grains of 1330grams/liter.
You have been asked many times to stop posting links to a page that requires registration to read it. It would be far more useful if you posted scientific papers to justify your opinions.
 
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I registered for that site. Its got some useful information. However, im not a scientific and converting things isnt my ability so I have to ask questions.

Personally i think a BADES system should be more common in our hobby. Why wouldn't we want to end the nitrogen cycle and gas it off? I think its easier than a few other nitrate removal methods, but it isnt very clear exactly what is needed to do. Neither is finding the sulfer media. I had to look all over my city and ended up having to order from another place at a cost of $125 for 5kgs.

So id need 13,350 grams of sulphur media to do a true bades system. I think ill start with 5kgs of media and see where that gets me.
 

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I think you misunderstand.
I asked why he cannot wait longer. Simple question, not an opinion. Would a 2 L reactor get there, but just take longer?

What I did state is my opinion that think it is ridiculous to use a system where 10 liters may be required. I have no idea if that much is needed or not, But, IMO, I would never use a denitrator that required me to set up a 10 L a reactor. That just takes up too much real estate unless you have a dedicated fish room separate from the aquarium.

Knowing the basics, one is aware the reactor must be big enough to remove the daily nitrate overproduction daily once the desired level is reached. One must have enough sulfur and media to export the daily nitrogen overproduction, only a bit more to lower the level. As explained, in the case nature will lower the level slowly, or one may increase the export rate as desired.
But the reactor must be big enough to be able to consume enough oxygen entered with the nitrate.
Using BADES one does have a very effective remineralization biofilter which may export most nitrogen entered.

In this case, the average daily nitrogen overproduction is NOT known, only the nitrate level to be reduced. Will 2 liter be enough? Maybe! We do not know. As explained, the advice to use 1%+1% is given to prevent the reactor may reach its critical point before reaching the desired level. This if a BADES biofilm reactor is used, not targetting 0 nitrate in the effluent.

If a BADES reactor is used, targetting 0 nitrate in the effluent, it is theoretical not possible to reach the target 0 nitrate with only 2 liter sulphur. At least 2% of the system volume of sulphur is needed to remove 150ppm in one passage true the reactor. One must also think about the phosphate content needed for autotrophic denitrification. If a "sulphur denitrator" is used, by which the flow is managed not in function of the nitrogen content but in the function of the DO content to keep the reactor anoxic, using only 2 litre of sulfur may lead to an HS factory if not managed correctly when the critical point will be reached. 2 liter is not enough to target 0 nitrate in the effluent having 150ppm in the influent. As one can not increase the flow, the critical point is the level that can be maintained at the present daily nitrogen overproduction. What if the daily production increases?
What if the reactor is not big enough to remove the daily overproduction daily? Wich probably will be the case as the nitrate content descends. Nitrate is needed to maintain the processes, the reactor water nitrate content may be depleted causing sulfate reduction.

A 2 liter + 2 liter BADES reactor will lower the nitrate level of 150ppm very fast until a certain nitrate level, the critical point, is reached. If 2liter sulfur is enough to remove the daily nitrogen overproduction, which normally is the case, in that case the target can be reached if 0 nitrates in the effluent are not targetted. One must be aware that at a level of 150 ppm to export the daily nitrogen overproduction only a very low flow is needed and the reactor can be used + 90% for denitrification, doing the same at a level of 2ppm only a small part of the reactor volume will be used for denitrification, <30%, the flow must be high enough to supply the nitrate needed to be able to export the daily nitrogen overproduction daily and to prevent nitrate starvation within the reactor. The for denitrification usable part of the total volume must contain enough sulfur to remove the same daily overproduction daily. So, it all depends on the daily nitrogen overproduction to be exported daily, Not on the nitrate level. This if 0 nitrate in the effluent is NOT a target. That is why knowing the average daily nitrate overproduction becomes important, before starting using BADES for lowering the nitrate level.
As the for denitrification usable part is divided over the total reactor volume we not only use sulfur strictly necessary for denitrification but also as a substrate for the growing mixotrophic biofilm making simultaneous nitrification and denitrification possible, using the total reactor volume.

What about a sump?
In most setups, there is more enough space under a +- 500 l aquarium for a bucket of 10 liters.
Having 150ppm in a reef aquarium is exceptional.
Normally a BADES biofilter is part of the system at system startup, by which only the daily nitrogen overproduction must be removed. Anyway, we always advise using a reactor with a volume of minimal 1% +1% as one does not know at setup what bioload must be supported in the future.
A "denitrator" does not change a thing for the carrying capacity of the system and using one does NOT support the bio-load.
Using a BADES biofilter or-reactor the carrying capacity of the system may follow the increasing bio-load while keeping the nitrogen content in balance at the desired level. The nitrate level will stay where you want it to stay as one will have full control over the nitrogen content and export rate. I think that is worth the "real estate" investment on the floor under the aquarium or above the sump. Of course, an aquarium room is everybody's wet dream.
There are methods used to lower the nitrate level which do not need any "real estate", but that is your specialty.
To remove 150ppm nitrate!? It is not my choice to make but I would invest in some "real estate".
 
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